Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : September 28th 2014 Contents A40
Sunday Guardian www.guardian.co.tt September 28, 2014
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WASHINGTON---Devoted customers of Apple
products these days worry about whether the
new iPhone 6 will bend in their jean pockets. The
National Security Agency and the nation s law
enforcement agencies have a different concern:
that the smartphone is the first of a post-Snowden
generation of equipment that will disrupt their
The phone encrypts e-mails, photos and contacts
based on a complex mathematical algorithm that
uses a code created by, and unique to, the phone s
user---and that Apple says it will not possess.
The result, the company is essentially saying, is
that if Apple is sent a court order demanding that
the contents of an iPhone 6 be provided to intel-
ligence agencies or law enforcement, it will turn
over gibberish, along with a note saying that to
decode the phone s e-mails, contacts and photos,
investigators will have to break the code or get the
code from the phone s owner.
Breaking the code, according to an Apple technical
guide, could take "more than five and a half years
to try all combinations of a six-character alphanu-
meric passcode with lowercase letters and numbers."
(Computer security experts question that figure,
because Apple does not fully realise how quickly
the NSA supercomputers can crack codes.)
Officials inside the intelligence agencies say they
fear the company s move is the first of several new
technologies that are clearly designed to defeat not
only the NSA, but also any court orders to turn
over information to intelligence agencies. They liken
Apple s move to the early days of Swiss banking,
when secret accounts were set up precisely to allow
national laws to be evaded.
The move raises a critical issue, the intelligence
officials say: Who decides what kind of data the
government can access?
Until now, those decisions have largely been a
matter for Congress, which passed the Commu-
nications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act in
1994, requiring telecommunications companies to
build into their systems an ability to carry out a
wiretap order if presented with one. But despite
intense debate about whether the law should be
expanded to cover e-mail and other content, it has
not been updated, and it does not cover content
contained in a smartphone.
At Apple and Google, company executives say
the United States government brought these changes
on itself. The revelations by the former NS. con-
tractor Edward Snowden not only killed recent
efforts to expand the law, but also made nations
around the world suspicious that every piece of
American hardware and software---from phones to
servers made by Cisco Systems---have "back doors"
for American intelligence and law enforcement.
locks out NSA
DES MOINES---The rapidly rising demand for
locally grown fruits and vegetables has created a
robust new market for refugees who fled violence
in their home countries and found peace in farming
small plots of land in several US cities.
With help from a federal grant programme and
local charities, refugees like Angelique Hakuzimana
in Des Moines, Iowa, are now harvesting crops to
meet local demand. They re also finding their place
in new communities through an activity many are
accustomed to, the federal programme director said.
Hakuzimana, 39, was displaced by war in Rwanda
in 2009 and settled in Iowa through a programme
sponsored by the United Nations High Commis-
sioner for Refugees. On a recent September morning,
she picked vegetables as farm manager Zach Couture
read off an order sheet from a food cooperative.
She excitedly showed off rows of tomatoes, pota-
toes, carrots, kale, lettuce and eggplant planted as
part of the Global Greens programme through the
Lutheran Services of Iowa. The hotel housekeeper
also grows cassava, a carbohydrate-rich root that s
a dietary staple in Africa.
"I really like my garden. I like to work myself.
Here you can do anything you like to do," Hakuz-
imana said, at times struggling to find the English
words to express her thoughts. "I ve got a lot a
The organisation received US$85,000 for its pro-
gramme, which offers farm plots on land owned
by a West Des Moines church to 26 refugee families
from several nations, including Bhutan, Burma,
Burundi and Rwanda.
It s one of 11 organisations to receive grants this
year through the federal Refugee Agricultural Part-
nership Program, which started in 2003 and provides
about $1 million a year, said Ron Munia, director
of the Division of Community Development in the
Office of Refugee Services. The programme also
has funded plots in New York City; Buffalo, New
York; Cleveland, Ohio; Honolulu, Hawaii; Nashville,
Tennessee; Providence, Rhode Island; Sioux Falls,
South Dakota; and Tampa, Florida.
"The big thing is that many refugees come from
agrarian backgrounds and this is something that
they are extremely accustomed to," said Munia,
whose office is part of the US Department of Health
and Human Services. "The interaction with the
local population and other refugees is a huge factor
in helping them integrate. (AP)
Refugees settle in thanks
to small US farm plots
Alex Congera, originally from Burundi, harvests vegetables in his garden at the
Global Greens Farm on Thursday, September 11 in West Des Moines, Iowa. A
growing interest from US consumers to buy locally grown fruits and vegetables
has provided a robust new market for refugees who have fled violence in their
home countries and have found peace in farming small plots of land in cities across
the United States. AP PHOTO
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