Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : November 8th 2014 Contents A28
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Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Saturday, November 8, 2014
EXPRESSIONS OF INTEREST
Engagement of an Operator for a Cafeteria at the Family Court and/or Hall of
Justice of the Judiciary of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
The Judiciary of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is seeking Expressions of Interest (EOI) from
qualified caterers wishing to be considered for inclusion in tenders for the award of a contract for the
provision of a full catering cafeteria for two (2) meals (breakfast and small lunches) including non
/or Hall of Justice
premises five (5) days a week for staff, visitors and any others who may perform business with the
Judiciary. The Judiciary will evaluate all EOI submissions and determine a shortlist of companies who will
be invited to bid on a three (3) year performance based contract.
Suppliers will be pre-qualified based on the following criteria:
Legal and Statutory Requirements
All interested vendors are asked to visit http://www.ttlawcourts.org/tenders
For full instructions on submission of Expressions of Interest Engagement of an Operator for a
Cafeteria at the Family Court and/or Hall of Justice of the Judiciary of the Republic of Trinidad and
Any inquires may be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org attention: Ms. Josanne Teeluckingh,
Procurement Specialist, Judiciary.
The Judiciary reserves the right to accept or reject any and all submissions.
All proposals will remain confidential, subject to the Freedom of Information Act, 1999.
If you find yourself about to go down with a
cold, the chances are that at some point a friend
will suggest you take echinacea. Some swear by it
to ward off a cold when they feel the first stirrings
of a sore throat. Others take it once a cold is full-
blown, in the hope that it will speed their recovery.
Native Americans have long valued echinacea for
its medical properties, but in the 20th Century its
use spread to many countries after it became popular
in Germany. In today s health food shops you can
see dozens of different kinds of preparations. The
question is, does it work? Every couple of years a
new study is published showing that echinacea either
does or doesn t reduce your risk of contracting a
cold. Part of the reason for this mixed picture is that
it comes in so many forms.
Of the nine different species, all from the daisy
family, there are three which are often used med-
icinally---the pinky-purple echinacea purpurea, the
pale purple coneflower and the slightly shorter echi-
nacea angustifolia. To complicate things more, some
preparations use the root, others the flower, the
leaves or the whole plant and then it can be pressed
for its juice, made into a tincture or dried and put
into tablets. Different research studies use different
preparations, making them hard to compare. No one
is even agreed on exactly which ingredients in echi-
nacea might prevent or aid recovery from a cold, or
whether it s the combination of ingredients that s
crucial. Echinacea contains four types of compounds
which might boost the immune system: alkamides,
glycoproteins, polysaccharides and caffeic acid deriv-
atives, but not all these substances are found in every
species of echinacea, nor in every part of the plant.So
does it make a difference to your chances of con-
tracting a cold?
After years of mixed results, in 2007 scientists at
the University Of Connecticut in the US conducted
a meta-analysis, combining and reanalysing the data
from the 1,600 participants in previous trials. The
results seemed good news for echinacea fans, with
newspapers proclaiming that supplements could
halve your chances of getting a cold. The problem
is that the plant is so versatile that the original studies
involved not only different species of echinacea, but
different parts of the plant, extracted in different
ways. You could argue that this is like pooling the
results of studies measuring different treatments,
since chemically not every species of part of the
plant is the same.
Then earlier this year came the most comprehensive
review so far---a Cochrane review that scanned the
literature and included only the very best studies.
They looked for randomised controlled studies where
people were given either echinacea or a placebo and
neither they nor the staff administering the prepa-
rations knew which they were getting. From the 82
trials they assessed they ended up with 24 which
fulfilled the criteria, mostly from the US and Germany.
Still, they weren t always convinced that the people
wouldn t guess what they were taking. One trial used
capsules containing vegetable oil as a placebo. Another
used the manufacturers own staff who might be
familiar with the taste of their own product.
In some studies people were given echinacea and
then deliberately exposed to a cold virus to see
whether they became infected. In others, people had
the echinacea on hand and were instructed to start
taking it the moment they felt a tickle in their throat
or starting sneezing.
Their results were slightly disappointing for those
hoping to avoid colds in the future. They found that
when you looked at these well-conducted trials,
none of them showed on their own that echinacea
prevented colds. But on a more positive note, when
they pooled the results of the best studies, giving
them a much larger group of people, those who took
echinacea did turn out to be less likely to get a cold,
even if only ten to 20 per cent less likely. The authors
suggest that perhaps the reason that these effects
didn t show up in individual studies, is that they had
such small numbers of people taking part in them.
Of course with the pooled result there s still the prob-
lem that the people in different studies took different
forms of echinacea.
We also need to bear in mind that these studies
all excluded people with an underlying illness. Not
everyone wants to boost their immune systems.
Scientists are unable to say whether echinacea does prevent colds be-
cause of the different methods used to manufacture the herbal extract.
YOUR DAILY HEALTH
News and advice
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