Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : January 3rd 2015 Contents I have on more than one occa-
sion unwittingly tuned into a mid-
night infomercial only to see a
beefy male instructor flex as he
pulls two high-resistance bungee
ropes down into a squat on his
gleaming silver Bowflex. Just five
easy payments, the infomercial
And yet does anyone actually
use Bowflex anymore, outside of
researchers of blog posts?
It s gone the way of Richard Sim-
mons, Tae Bo, the Slendertone,
P90X, and soon, inevitably, Cross-
Fit.These trendy workouts marketed
by gyms and entrepreneurial ath-
letic trainers come and go quickly,
says Walter Thompson, author of
the American College of Sports
Medicine s Worldwide Survey of
Fitness Trends for 2015.
For the last nine years, this survey
has listed the top 20 fitness trends
worldwide. This year, the top trends
include body weight-training, high-
intensity interval training and per-
sonal training with certified pro-
Zumba, which was No 9 in 2012
and dropped to 13 in 2013, no longer
ranks in the top 20. Pilates, indoor
cycling, stability balls and balance
training have also fallen off the list,
while new marketing for body
weight training programmes at
gyms have earned the trend a spot.
But where do new forms of workout
"Sometimes it is the creation of
a new tool, other times it s the
introduction of a new use for an
old tool," says Neal Pire, a veteran
of the fitness industry who works
at HNH Fitness in Oradell, New
Jersey. For example, indoor biking
or "spinning" required a new tool.
However, step aerobics classes that
were popular in the early 1990s
were used in research and academ-
ics for physical conditioning long
before finding a home in the gym.
Hot new fitness trends are often
a crucial blend of serendipity and
Take Zumba, Pire tell Shots in
an email. Its creator, Beto Perez,
was a group exercise instructor in
Cali, Colombia, who showed up to
teach an aerobics class one day
without his music tapes. He impro-
vised with some salsa and
merengue he happened to have with
him and faster than you can say
"Latin dance party," a new fitness
phenomenon was born.
But Zumba didn t stick around
for long, says Thompson. He pre-
dicts high-intensity interval training
like CrossFit will soon be following
"High-intensity interval training
is the result of a lot of these
infomercials," says Thompson. "I
think that in five years, we re not
going to be talking about (it)." Part
of the reason, he suggests, is
because there s a high probability
of injuring yourself when doing
aggressive exercises. (npr.org)
body & soul
Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Saturday, January 3, 2015
Most types of cancer can be put
down to bad luck rather than risk fac-
tors such as smoking, a study has
A US team was trying to explain why
some tissues were millions of times
more vulnerable to cancer than oth-
ers.The results, in the journal Science,
showed two thirds of the cancer types
analysed were caused just by chance
mutations rather than lifestyle.
However some of the most common
and deadly cancers are still heavily
influenced by lifestyle.
And Cancer Research UK said a
healthy lifestyle would still heavily stack
the odds in a person s favour.
In the US, 6.9 per cent of people
develop lung cancer, 0.6 per cent brain
cancer and 0.00072 per cent get
tumours in their laryngeal (voice box)
cartilage at some point in their life-
Toxins from cigarette smoke could
explain why lung cancer is more com-
But the digestive system is exposed
to more environmental toxins than the
brain, yet brain tumours are three times
as common as those in the small intes-
The team at Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity School of Medicine and Bloomberg
School of Public Health believe the way
tissues regenerate is the answer.
Old tired cells in the body are con-
stantly being replaced with new ones
made by dividing stem cells.
But with each division comes the
risk of a dangerous mutation that moves
the stem cell one step closer to being
The pace of turnover varies through-
out the body with rapid turnover in
the lining of the gut and a slower pace
in the brain.
The researchers compared how often
stem cells divided in 31 tissues in the
body over a lifetime with the odds of
a cancer in those tissues.
They concluded that two thirds of
cancer types were "due to bad luck"
from dividing stem cells picking
up mutations that could not be pre-
These cancer types included
Glioblastoma (brain cancers), small
intestine cancers and pancreatic can-
Cristian Tomasetti, an assistant pro-
fessor of oncology and one of the
researchers, said a focus on prevention
would not prevent such cancers.
"If two thirds of cancer incidence
across tissues is explained by random
DNA mutations that occur when stem
cells divide, then changing our lifestyle
and habits will be a huge help in
preventing certain cancers, but this
may not be as effective for a variety
"We should focus more resources
on finding ways to detect such cancers
at early, curable stages."
The remaining third of cancer types,
which are affected by lifestyle factors,
viruses or a heightened family risk,
include some of the most common:
Basal cell carcinoma---a type of skin
cancer made more common by too
much UV exposure
Lung cancer---strongly linked to
Colon cancer---increased by poor diet
and family risk genes
Two common types of cancer---
breast and prostate---were not analysed
as the researchers could not find a con-
sistent rate of stem cell division in those
tissues. Separate research by Cancer
Research UK shows more than four in
10 of the total number of cancers were
down to lifestyle.
Dr Emma Smith, senior science
information officer at the charity, told
the BBC: "We estimate that more than
four in 10 cancers could be prevented
by lifestyle changes, like not smoking,
keeping a healthy weight, eating a
healthy diet and cutting back on alco-
"Making these changes is not a guar-
antee against cancer, but it stacks the
odds in our favour.
"It s vital that we continue making
progress to detect cancer earlier and
improve treatments, but helping people
understand how they can reduce their
risk of developing cancer in the first
place remains crucial in tackling cancer."
According to experts, some cancers are caused by cell divisions that go wrong.
Most cancer types
'just bad luck'
Crossfit is a system that aims to optimise fitness by using workouts
consisting of constantly varied functional movements performed at
relatively high intensity.
How will you work out when
Crossfit's no longer hip?
YOUR DAILY HEALTH
News and Advice
Links Archive January 2nd 2015 January 4th 2015 Navigation Previous Page Next Page