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SPELLING & VOCABULARY/PUNCTUATION/COM-
Spelling and Vocabulary:
Words beginning with or containing the consonant
blend "ph" are examples of words that are also fre-
The consonant blend "ph" usually takes the "f"
Complete the words beginning with or containing
the consonant blend "ph" in EACH the following
sentences. One space represents one letter.
Remember to spell correctly. You may need to use
a dictionary to help you.
1. The builder told us that he had completed
2. A person who collects stamps is called a
_ _ph_ n_ is a very difficult musical instru-
ment to play.
"I will like to become a ph_ ar_ac_ _ t when I
grow up," said Marcy.
5. Aqua-ph_ b_
_ is a term used to describe the in-
tense fear of water.
6. I enjoyed studying ph_loso_ _ y at school.
7. Marc was unable to copy the document because
_r was broken.
8. Ph_ t _gra_
_y is one of the most common hob-
bies among students in my class.
most plants that gives leaves their colour.
10. Plants produce food by a process called _
Punctuation: Using the apostrophe (') and quota-
tions marks (" ")
Very often the different uses of the apostrophe (')
are often confused with the uses of quotation
The Apostrophe is used:
1. to show possession or ownership in nouns
i. the boy's cricket bat (singular)
ii. the boys' cricket bats (plural)
iii. Mr. Jones' car (singular)
iv. the Joneses' cars (plural)
2. in contractions or words or phrases that are
i. cannot - can't
ii. itis -it's
Quotations marks are used to:
1. identify or mark out the exact words of a
speaker (direct speech)
"Please pass the butter," Jane requested.
"When you complete your homework,"
mother said, "you may go to the park."
NB: Single quotation marks (' ') are usually used to
enclose a quotation (from a book or another
speaker) within a quotation.
"The proverb, 'a fool and his money is
soon parted,' is my father's favourite," said
2. to enclose the titles of books, magazines, televi-
sion and radio programmes, songs and nick-
"The Cosby Show" is a favourite in my family.
ii. We often refer to our principal as "Chief."
Continued on the next page
(iii) The bathers have gathered on the beach. This
beach is one of the most popular ones in
(iv) That woman is the same person. That person
gave us shelter at her home during the sudden
(v) The ice cream was just extremely delicious. The
ice cream had been served to all at the party.
(d) Whom is used when it refers to a person or
persons that are the object of the sentence.
(S1) This morning, I recognized the girl.
(S2) We had met the girl, yesterday.
As can be seen in the sentences above, in (S1), 'the
girl' is the object and this is repeated in (S2). There-
fore, 'whom' can be used to replace 'the girl' in (S2)
when joining (S1) and (S2).
Our new sentence will now read: "This morning I rec-
ognized the girl whom we had met, yesterday."
N.B. 'Whom' can also follow prepositions, such as
'to', 'at', 'from', 'for', towards and so on.
(S1) 'The nurse attended to the patient'. and
(S2) 'She gave (to) the patient an injection,' when
joined, become "The nurse attended to the
patient to whom she gave an injection."
Practice Exercise #6:-
Join the following sets of sentences, using the
Hint:- Introduce 'whom' immediately after the underlined
word/ words, then omit the repeated word or pronoun that
is used in its place. As shown in the example, above, do not
forget as well, to include any preposition that is used be-
fore the repeated word. (Some small changes may be nec-
(i) That girl is my sister. You saw the girl in the
(ii) The snacks were shared among all the children
Sharon had invited these children to her party.
(iii) The cyclist had excelled in the race. The organiz-
ers had presented an award to the cyclist.
(iv) The man was living alone in the house. The fire-
men had rescued the man from the fire.
(v) This person is our favorite aunt. You were look-
ing at her, yesterday.
(e) 'Whose' is used to show possession or owner-
(S1) This morning we saw the man. and
(S2) That man's dog had chased us yesterday ,
This now becomes: (S3)This morning, we saw the
man whose dog had chased us yesterday, after
Practice Exercise #7:-
Join each of the following sentences by using the
word 'whose'. (Some small changes may be neces-
(i) Gary went to visit his friend. His friend's home is
(ii) Mrs. Lewis' flower garden is extraordinary. Mrs.
Lewis is our neighbor.
(iii) Some friends have planned a most exciting birth-
day party for Ellie. Ellie's birthday is next Thurs-
(iv) Gary has not completed his homework, as yet.
Gary's homework is due on Monday.
(v) That man is my uncle. His car was involved in a
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