Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : June 30th 2015 Contents A28
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Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Tuesday, June 30, 2015
This is guide to calculating your quarterly instal-
ments for 2015.?
2014 -- Chargeable Profit
2014 -- Tax on Chargeable Profit - $ 250,000
2015 -- Estimated Quarterly Tax Payment
Estimated payment due per quarter = $62,500
NOTE: Where your 2015 Estimated Chargeable
Profit is likely to exceed 2014 Chargeable Profit
you are advised to increase your quarterly
payments to accommodate the increased profit
and avoid interest on short payments.
NB: Any short payment or non-payment of
quarterly instalment is also subject to interest at
the rate of 20% per annum from the date the
payment was due to the date of payment or April
30, 2015 whichever is earlier
MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND THE ECOMONY
INLAND REVENUE DIVISION
TAXPAYER RELATIONS SECTION
''Changing the way we interact with you''
2ND QUARTERLY TAX INSTALMENT DUE
You are reminded that Quarterly Tax Instalments
are due and payable on or before --
September 30th December 31st
of each year.
NOTE: Calculation of your Quarterly Income/
Corporation Instalments for the current year of
income is based on an estimated chargeable
income, which is the chargeable income of the
previous year of income.
NOTE: Calculation of your Business Levy and
Green Fund Levy Quarterly Instalments is based
on77gross sales/receipts) respectively.
NOTE: Payments not made by these dates
will accrue interest at the rate of 20% per
annum from the due dates to the date of
Everyone knows that keeping our forests and
grasslands full of wildlife is good for the environ-
ment. But could protecting animals and preserving
ecosystems also help people not catch Lyme disease
or West Nile virus?
Earlier this month, scientists at the University
of South Florida reported evidence that higher bio-
diversity in environments, such as forests in the
northeastern US and the Amazon basin in South
America, may lower people s chances of getting
The meta-analysis, published in the Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences, offers the
tantalising prospect that the goals of conservation
and human health might be more connected than
The idea isn t new. It s a hotly debated hypothesis
called the "dilution effect." And not all ecologists
buy it. But they do agree it s an attractive idea.
Here s how it works.
Many human pathogens
spend part of their life
cycle inside another ani-
mal, like a mouse or
shrew. If a tick or mos-
quito feeds on that ani-
mal, it picks up the
infection, and then one
quick bite can pass the
virus, bacterium or pro-
tozoan to a person.
But pathogens are
picky. They don t hang
out in just any animal.
For instance, Lyme bac-
teria tend to live in small
mammals, such as mice
and chipmunks, and are transmitted to humans
through deer ticks. And West Nile virus sets up
shop in only birds, especially crows and jays. Then
mosquitoes pass that virus along.
The dilution effect suggests that increasing bio-
diversity---such as the number of different mammal
species or bird species---will offer infection control,
The idea is that when there s a lot of different
kinds of species around, there might be fewer that
make good hosts for pathogens. And when the
right host is around, the other species could crowd
it out and keep its numbers lower.
In other words, the disease is diluted among the
different species. So a tick or mosquito is less likely
to feed on an infected animal, and less likely to
pass that infection to a person.
Sounds plausible, right? But ecology is compli-
cated---and hard to predict.
To see if the dilution effect plays out in real life,
ecologist David Civitello and his team analysed a
broad swath of recent research on biodiversity and
disease. In most cases, they found increased bio-
diversity meant there were fewer infections in ani-
mals that transmit parasites to people. For example,
deer mice that live in less diverse communities in
the Great Basin of Utah were more likely to harbour
hantavirus than animals that live in communities
with more biodiversity.
But not all diseases showed this pattern. That s
okay, Civitello says. "Things aren t going to work
everywhere, all the time," he says. "What we found
is that the dilution effect occurs very commonly."
Ecologist Chelsea Wood, at the University of
Michigan, doesn t agree.
She thinks the dilution effect is far rarer than
Civitello s study lets on. "Approaching the idea of
conservation for disease control is premature," she
Wood worries that scientists want so badly to
believe that the dilution effect hypothesis applies
in all situations that it affects what gets published.
"No one wants to write the paper that if you bull-
doze the forest, diseases will go away. I don t want
to write that paper," she says.
Another issue Wood has is that most of the stud-
ies included in Civetello s study looked only at a
single parasite or virus at a time. In real ecosystems,
there s often more than one pathogen in the same
area. Each one could respond to having more species
around in opposite ways.
"If we re interested in understanding how general
the dilution effect is," she says, "we need to study
a cross section of parasite diversity in an ecosystem."
Save wildlife, save yourself?
YOUR DAILY HEALTH
News and Advice
part of their life
cycle inside another
animal, like a mouse
or shrew. If a tick or
mosquito feeds on
that animal, it picks
up the infection,
and then one quick
bite can pass the
virus, bacterium or
protozoan to a
pathogens spend part
of their life cycle inside
another animal, like a
mouse or shrew.
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