Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : July 13th 2015 Contents Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Monday, July 13, 2015
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage carefully before attempting the questions. Each question has four options, select
the most appropriate answer, based on what is contained or implied in the passage.
21. Who does the writer identify as being the most
knowledgeable about Salmon?
A. People of the United States
B. People of the Pacific Coast
C. People of the Atlantic Coast
D. Indian Tribes of the Northwest
22. Why are Salmon classified as saltwater fish?
A. They favour saltwater
B. They spawn in fresh water
C. They live in saltwater but spawn in freshwater
D. They live and spawn in salt water
23. The preferred method of preparation used by the
THE STORY AND HISTORY OF PACIFIC SALMON
Everyone throughout the United States knows salmon; but people living far inland or even along the Atlantic Coast do not
know salmon as the people of the Pacific states know it. It is as if they are magical as they have accomplished and provided
great things with their bodies. They are survivors of the Ice Age and have weathered many storms of nature and still con-
tinued to thrive. They are a saltwater fish which spawns in fresh water. The Columbia River and the Puget Sound country
are especially noted for their fine salmon, and, of course, Alaska.
To cooks, gourmets, and fishermen alike, the salmon is the king of the waters. The distinctive colour of the flesh of a salmon
is part of its attraction. It can vary from a very delicate pale pink to a much deeper shade, verging on red. In the Northwest,
because of the various ethnic and cultural backgrounds, you can find salmon smoked hard in the Indian tradition and salmon
smoked light in the Scottish tradition. It can also be as simple as a barbecued salmon dotted with butter and lemon.
The Indian tribes of the Northwest look upon salmon with great reverence and have special rituals and legends for the
yearly salmon run. They look upon the salmon as life, as the salmon has nourished them physically and spiritually since the
days when people first came to this region. They would migrate to the Columbia River each year during the spring and fall
spawning season, when the salmon hurled themselves upstream from the Pacific Ocean to lay their eggs. During that time,
the Columbia River was so thick with the countless salmon that the Indians simply speared or clubbed them to death from
their canoes or from the river banks. What the Indians didn't eat fresh, they would air-dry in the river winds to create jerky.
Commercial fishing for salmon began shortly after the arrival of Europeans on the West Coast. The Hudson's Bay Company
shipped salted salmon from Fort Langley to the Hawaiian Islands starting in 1835, and the first salmon cannery opened in
1876. By the turn of the century, 70 canneries were in operation. The first gillnet fishing on the Columbia took place in the
mid 1850's even before the states of Washington and Oregon were founded, and before the Indian treaties were signed.
The life cycle of the salmon is an interesting one. Spawned in freshwater streams, the young salmon travel to sea early.
Here they live and grow for three or four years. In the spring after they reach maturity, the adult salmon return to their
native streams to spawn. As salmon begin their journey home, they will stop eating and live mainly on the oils stored in
their bodies. In some mysterious way, they orient themselves and swim homeward with precision equaling electronically
equipped ocean sailors. The distances they travel and their astounding return to the exact point on earth where they
emerged from their egg sacs are amazing. They will leap over any obstacle in their way, such as braving dams and waterfalls,
hurling itself many feet out of the water until it surmounts the obstacle or dies of exhaustion in the attempt; there is no
turning back. For some unknown reason, the female always dies after spawning.
There are five species of Pacific Salmon, comprise one of the most valuable fishery resources of the United States. The
spring salmon arrive first, then large Chinook in late May and early June, next the Sockeye, the Coho, and finally the Chum.
In the winter, during the off season, it is the Steelhead which is closely related to the Atlantic salmon.
Chinook or King: Average size 10 to 15 pounds, up to 135 pounds. They are soft in texture, very rich in oil, and separates
into large flakes, making it excellent for salads and recipes calling for large pieces. Chinook salmon are the largest of the
Pacific salmon, with some individuals growing to more than 100 pounds. These huge fish are rare, as most mature Chinook
are less than 50 pounds. Kings run in the spring.
Sockeye or Red: Average size 5 to 8 pounds, up to 15 pounds. Has deep red meat and considerable oil, is of firm texture,
and breaks into smaller flakes, making it attractive for hot dishes and salads. These run from late spring through summer
and contain less oil than Kings.
Coho or Silver: Average size 6 to 12 pounds, up to 31 pounds. Is large flaked, a lighter red than sockeye, and is good in all
dishes. Coho are a very popular sport fish in Puget Sound. This species uses coastal streams and tributaries, and is often
present in small neighborhood streams. Coho can even be found in urban settings if their needs of cold, clean, year-round
water are met. They run in the fall.
Chum or Dog: Average size 10 to 15 pounds, up to 33 pounds. Large flaked, very light in colour, low in oil, and is especially
suitable for cooked dishes where colour is not important. Male chum salmon develop large "teeth" during spawning, which
resemble canine teeth. This may explain the nickname dog salmon. It is also said they are called Dog Salmon since they are
commonly dried and used for feeding dog teams during winter.
Pink or Humpback: Average size 3 to 5 pounds, up to 12 pounds. Male pink salmon develop a large hump on their back
during spawning, hence the nickname humpback salmon. This is the smallest of the fall-spawning Pacific salmon species
and is used for canning.
(Article by Linda Straddle of What's Cooking America)(Source whatscookingamerica.net/salmon.htm) (Edited)
Continued on the next page
A. Light smoke
D. Butter and Lemon
24. What is the belief of the Indian Tribes of Northwest?
A. Salmon is king of the waters
B. Salmon is associated with healing
C. Salmon is rooted in deep traditions
D. Salmon is revered and is integral to their rituals
25. How do the adult salmon survive during the spawning
A. They feed on small organisms below the surface
of the water
B. They consume small fish
C. They live off the oils stored in their bodies
D. They eat plankton
26. What is the MAIN feature of (paragraph 5)?
A. The tenacity of salmon
B. The ability of salmon to orient themselves
C. The spawning patterns of salmon
D. The life cycle of salmon
27. Based on the writer's language how does she view
A. As magical
B. As king of the water
C. As highly intelligent
D. As sacred
28. Given the methods of preparation shared by the writer,
which of the following words BEST describes salmon?
29. The average size of the Chinook salmon is?
A. 100 lbs
B. 50 lbs
C. 135 lbs
D. 10-15 lbs
30. The spawning season spans what period?
A. May to June
B. Spring and Fall
C. August to September
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