Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : July 20th 2015 Contents Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Monday, July 20, 2015
21. What name was given to Venice?
A. The Floating City
B. The Wooden City
C. The City of Many Islands
D. The Great Maritime Power
22. The Venetian people took to the islands of Torcello,
Iesolo and Malamocco to
A. Establish themselves as a maritime power in
B. Forge alliances with the peoples of Europe
C. Escape the barbarians who were raiding Rome's
D. Seek out newlands
23. How many islands make up Venice?
A. 5 islands
B. 15 islands
C. 17 islands
D. 118 islands
24. The wooden stakes and platforms on which Vene-
tian's Building are constructed have been made resist-
A. The absence of microorganisms
B. The absence of oxygen and the presence of salt
C. The presence of salt water petrifies the wood
D. The absence of oxygen and microorganisms
25. What influence did Napoleon have on Venice's his-
A. He captured Venice when he invaded Italy in
B. He built the Santa Maria Della Salute Church
C. He invaded Venice in the 15th century
D. He stopped Pepin, the son of Charlemagne, from
26. The writer uses the term "normal phenomenon" to
A. Temporary in nature (line 8)
B. On a permanent basis (line 9)
C. Started to decline (line 29)
D. Happening more frequently in recent years (line
27. The expression "pessimistic observers" means the
B. Cynical onlookers
C. Naive government advisers
D. Shrewd businessmen
28. The "aqua alta" flooding has been attributed to
A. Climate change and rising sea levels
B. Inland rains and high tides
C. High tides due to strong winds, storm surges,
and severe inland rains
D. Strong winds and rising sea levels
29. What measure has been proposed to reduce the fre-
quency and gravity of flooding in Venice?
A. Construction of 79 mobile flood gates
struction procedure in Venice demonstrates the amount of wood required just for the stakes. According to this book, when
the Santa Maria Della Salute church was built, 1,106,657 wooden stakes, each measuring 4 metres, were driven underwater.
This process took two years and two months to be completed. On top of that, the wood had to be obtained from the
forests of Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro, and transported to Venice via water. Thus, one can imagine the scale of this
The use of wood as a supporting structure may seem as a surprise, since wood is relatively less durable than stone or
metal. The secret to the longevity of Venice's wooden foundation is the fact that they are submerged underwater. The
decay of wood is caused by microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria. As the wooden support in Venice is submerged
underwater, they are not exposed to oxygen, one of the elements needed by microorganisms to survive. In addition, the
constant flow of salt water around and through the wood petrifies the wood over time, turning the wood into a hardened
As a city surrounded by water, Venice had a distinct advantage over her land-based neighbours. For a start, Venice was
secure from enemy invasions. For instance, Pepin, the son of Charlemagne, attempted to invade Venice, but failed as he
was unable to reach the islands on which the city was built. Venice
eventually became a great maritime power in the Mediterranean. For instance, in 1204, Venice allied itself with the Cru-
saders and succeeded in capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Nevertheless, Venice started to decline in the
15th century, and was eventually captured by Napoleon in 1797 when he invaded Italy.
As of today, the lagoon that has protected Venice from countless foreign invaders is the biggest threat to its survival. To
the local Venetians, the flooding of the city seems to be a normal phenomenon, as the water level rises about a dozen
times a year. This flooding are known as aqua alta (high water), and are generally caused by unusually high tides due to
strong winds, storm surges, and severe inland rains.
However, this is happening more frequently in recent years due to the rising sea level caused by climate change, which is
starting to alarm the city. Thus, a number of solutions have been proposed to rescue Venice from sinking. One of these
measures is the Mo.S.E. (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico, or Experimental Electromechanical Module) Project.
This involves the construction of 79 mobile floodgates which will separate the lagoon from the Adriatic when the tide ex-
ceeds one meter above the usual high- water mark. Nevertheless, some pessimistic observers doubt that such measures
will be sufficient to preserve Venice forever, and that the city will eventually sink, just like the fabled city of Atlantis.
Continued on the next page
B. Replacing the wooden structures with metal
C. Installation of stone barriers to control the water
D. Increasing the number of wooden stakes used in
DIRECTIONS: Read the poem carefully before attempting
the questions. Each question has four options, select the
most appropriate answer, based on what is implied or
stated in the poem.
30. How would you describe the general mood of the
31. Line 3 "the howling wind assails me," is an example of
WHEN I STOP AND PRAY
When the storm clouds boil around me,
And the lightning splits the sky.
When the howling wind assails me,
And life's sea is rolling high
When my heart is filled with terror,
And my fears, I can't allay
Then I find sweet peace and comfort,
When I simply stop and pray.
When the things of life confound me,
And my faith is ebbing low
When my trusted friends betray me,
And my heart is aching so
When the night seems black and endless,
And I long for light of day
Then I find a silver dawning,
When I simply stop and pray.
There are things beyond the heavens
I can't begin to understand,
But I know that God is living,
And I know He holds my hand.
Yes, I know He watches o'er me
All the night and all the day
And He's always there to hear me
When I simply stop and pray.
By William Robinson
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