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Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Thursday, August 20, 2015
Consistent with the provisions of the Telecommunications Act, Ch 47: 31 of
the Laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, the Telecommunications
Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (the Authority) is inviting comments on
the following documents titled:
1) Draft Revised Current Cost Accounting (CCA) Reference Paper
2) Draft Revised Top Down Long Run Average Incremental Cost (LRAIC)
Model Specification Paper
Interested persons are asked to note that the deadline to submit comments
on these documents has been extended to Tuesday September 1st, 2015 in
accordance with the Authority's Public Consultation Comment Submission
The Draft Consultative Documents and the Comment Submission Form are
available on the Authority's Website:
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For further information
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Submission of Comments
Printed copies of the draft documents
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People of all ages relate to and enjoy music, mak-
ing it a universal language, of sorts. However, its
value can go far beyond simple listening.
Most people enjoy music, but can it actually make
the mind "move"? Absolutely, according to Kimmo
Lehtonen, PhD, professor of education at the Uni-
versity of Turku (Finland) and a clinical music therapist
for more than 25 years. In fact, therapists have been
using music therapy to promote memory and a sense
of self in the treatment of older adults with demen-
tia.Music therapy is a target-oriented and purposeful
activity in which therapists work with individuals or
groups, using musical expression and the memories,
feelings, and sensations it evokes. It has been found
to be particularly beneficial for older adults with var-
ious types of dementia.
"Music therapy has many faces," says Lehtonen.
"Music has a close relationship with unconscious
emotions, which are activated by musical movement.
To me, music represents a microcosmos which has
a close relationship to our inner feelings. These feelings
are so strong, they re meaningful even if patients
cannot remember who they are."
John Carpente, founder and executive director of
the Rebecca Center for Music Therapy in New York
and a licensed, board-certified music therapist,
describes the centre s music therapy programme for
older adults: "Meeting individually and within a
group, elder clients express themselves and recall the
memories that music sparks and stimulates. By lis-
tening to live music and being involved in live music-
making experiences, a greater quality of life is possible."
This, he believes, empowers clients to emerge from
the isolation imposed by Alzheimer s disease and
dementia. He notes that programme therapists use
music therapy to improve the overall physical and
mental wellbeing of dementia patients, including the
• memory recall
• positive changes in moods and emotional states;
• a sense of control over life
• non-pharmacological management of pain and
• stimulation that promotes interest even when
other approaches are ineffective
• structure that promotes rhythmic and continuous
movement or vocal fluency as an adjunct to physical
• opportunities to interact socially with others.
Music therapy is especially beneficial for older
people with dementia who may be unable to com-
municate in another way. "Music can function, for
instance, as an interpreter of the [patient s] world
picture without the problem essentially connected
with verbal interaction," says Lehtonen.
Since dementia is a degenerative condition, express-
ing basic needs and being understood can become
problematic and lead to a complicated feeling of iso-
lation for sufferers, says David Aldridge, chair of
qualitative research in medicine at the University
Witten Herdecke (Germany) and editor of Music
Therapy in Dementia Care.
Alicia Ann Clair, PhD, MT-BC, director of music
education and therapy at the University of
Kansas/Lawrence, says that making music and lis-
tening to it provide ways to employ cognitive skills
to avoid losing them.
"When older persons are interested in learning to
make music or are looking for ways to rejuvenate
skills learned in the past, many programmes are avail-
able," she says.
The triggering of memories via music can also
promote communication within the older patient,
essentially giving him or her a renewed sense of iden-
tity. "I have one particular experience, which was
very strong and beautiful," Lehtonen recalls.
"I used to work as a supervisor of music therapy
research. The therapist had a video camera set up
in every session and afterward, we would analyse
the tapes. In this case, the therapist sang old Finnish
folk songs to an over 80-year-old man with dementia.
Music therapy helps dementia patients
After every song, the man sang his own song in a
broken voice. He sang old Italian romantic songs,
which were quite difficult. He exactly remembered
melodies and words, and he sang many songs during
these sessions. His voice and expression were so
strong and authentic they put a shiver down my
spine. I checked his personal history. This old man,
who hardly remembered his name, had spent his
best years in Florence, where he worked as an interior
YOUR DAILY HEALTH
News and Advice
Music therapy can
help seniors with
positive changes in
moods and emotions,
a sense of identity,
and even a sense of
control over life.
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