Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : August 24th 2015 Contents Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Monday, August 24, 2015
A. He will die
B. The trials of life will not consume him
C. He will have a long life on the earth
D. The course of his life will change
48. "Regret shall be the gravel under foot," speaks of
A. His desire to leave this world behind
B. His feelings of remorse
C. His past failures and missed opportunities
D. His determination not to dwell on the past
49. The poet is MOST likely
A. a wanderer
B. a fugitive
D. an ordinary man
DIRECTION: Read the passage carefully before attempting the questions. Each question has four options, select
the most appropriate answer, based on what is contained or implied in the passage.
53. What was unique about Samuel Fay's paper clip
A. The intent behind the design was to fasten
paper to cloth.
B. Fay invented the product and machine to man-
ufacture the product.
C. The product was first patented in Germany.
D. Fay was the only known designer of paper clips
at that time.
54. What was distinct about the Gem paper clip?
A. It was patented in 1899
B. Its oval shape
C. It was of US origin
D. It was renowned for its arched design
55. "Prolific Inventor," is the term assigned to George
McGill. What does this term connote?
A. Refuted to be the best
B. Capable of producing in abundance
C. Above average skill
D. Tireless in pursuit
56. Why was Johan Vaaler's paper clip patented in
A. He was Norwegian
B. No patents had existed in Germany
C. His company was based in Germany
D. Norway did not have a law governing patents
57. To date, which designer has won the greatest ac-
claim as evident by the success of his product?
A. The Elliptical Paper Clip
B. The Gem Paper Clip
C. The Gothic Paper Clip
D. The Ticket Fastener
58. Based on your reading, many designers would have
obtained patents, what is benefit of a patent?
A. The designer can lay claim to it.
B. It gives the owner limited rights to the product
and its design.
C. Other inventors are limited in terms of what
they can create.
D. Right is granted to the owner to exclusive
profit for a limited period.
59. Who imposed the restriction on the Norwegians
that prohibited them from wearing buttons with
the king's initials?
A. The Court
B. The Nazi
C. The King
D. The Norwegian Government
60. Which of the following options BEST characterises
the behaviour of the Norwegian People in their
"show of solidarity"?
A. A peaceful protest
B. Social unrest
C. An uprising
D. Social disobedience
END OF ENGLISH TEST
50. Some of the early forms of binding paper together
included all of the following methods EXCEPT?
C. Straight Pins
D. Metal hooks
51. The paper clip as we know it has been in existence
52. Who obtained the first patent?
A. William D. Middlebrook
B. Johan Valeer
C. Samuel Fay
D. George McGill
INVENTION OF THE PAPER CLIP
Consider the humble paper clip: It's just a thin piece of steel wire bent into a double-oval shape, but over
the past century, no one has invented a better method of holding loose sheets of paper together.
The common paper clip is a wonder of simplicity and function, so it seems puzzling that it wasn't invented
earlier. For centuries, straight pins, string and other materials were used as fasteners, but they punctured
or damaged the papers. While the paper clip seems like such an obvious solution, its success had to wait
for the invention of steel wire, which was "elastic" enough to be stretched, bent and twisted.
The first paper clip was invented in 1867 by Samuel Fay. The patent (#64,088) was issued on April 23,
1867 for a Ticket Fastener. Fay specified in the description that in addition to attaching tickets to gar-
ments it could be used to hold papers together. Fay's design along with the 50 other designs patented
prior to 1899 are not even close to the modern design we know today.
But the modern paper clip existed on paper as early as April 27, 1899. It appears on a patent (#636,272)
issued November 9, 1899 to William D. Middlebrook of Waterbury, Connecticut. Middlebrook invented
not just the paper clip but he also invented a machine to produce the paper clip. The patent drawings
clearly show the final product, the common paper clip. In his description he makes reference that both
the machine and the paper clip design are to be covered by the patent.
Cushman and Denison a manufacturing company already in the paper clip and office supply business pur-
chased the Middlebrook patent in 1899. That same year Cushman and Denison also trademarked the
name "GEM" for their new paper clip. The design was perfected further by rounding the sharp points of
the wire so they wouldn't catch, scratch or tear the papers. By 1907, the Gem brand rose to prominence
as the perfect paper clip that "will hold securely your letters, documents, or memoranda without perfo-
ration or mutilation until you wish to release them." Since then, literally zillions of paper clips have been
Over the years, many different inventors have been credited with the invention of the paper clip. First
because so many patents were issued and second because there are so many design possibilities. One
of the most prolific inventors was George McGill who patent under his name or in conjunction with other
inventors over 15 different designs from 1888 to 1903. His 1903 patent (#742,893) even shows a design
that looks like Middlebrook's. But the inventor who is named the most often as the inventor is Johan
Vaaler. He is probably named most often because the story surrounding his paper clip makes for good
In 1899 a Norwegian named Johan Vaaler, patented the paper clip in Germany because Norway had no
patent law at the time. Vaaler's device received an American patent (#675,761) in 1901. Vaaler's American
patent drawing shows several kinds of paper clips, from square to triangular to one that looks a lot like
the elliptical ones in wide use today. But the wire does not form the familiar loop within a loop. However
Vaaler did nothing with his invention.
Norwegians have proudly embraced their countryman, Johan Vaaler, as the true inventor. During the Nazi
occupation of Norway in World War II, Norwegians made the paper clip a symbol of national unity. Pro-
hibited from wearing buttons imprinted with the Norwegian king's initials, they fastened paper clips to
their lapels in a show of solidarity and opposition to the occupation. Wearing a paper clip was often reason
enough for arrest.
One clear challenge to the Gem was patented (#1,985,866) in 1934, and has come to be known as the
Gothic clip; because its loops are pointed more to resemble Gothic arches than the rounded Romanesque
ones of the Gem. Henry Lankenau's patent application for the "perfect Gem" also listed ease of applying
to papers as one of the invention's advantages. Although colorful plastic materials and new shapes have
challenged the double-oval steel-wire paper clip over the years, none has proven superior. The traditional
paper clip is the essence of form follows function. After a century, it still works.
(Article by Idealfinder Paper Clip History - Invention of the Paper Clip) (Edited) (Source www.ideafinder.com/history/inven-
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