Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : September 7th 2015 Contents Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Monday, September 7, 2015
17. The derelict vehicles in the empty lot have become a
breathing ground for rodents and mosquitoes.
18. In the case involving the boy, who was stuck in his eye
with a pencil by another boy, the situation necessi-
tates that remedial action be instituted against the
19. While it is not easy raising children, parents do have
an obligation to demonstrate right values and be-
haviours for their youngsters to emulate.
20. The surgeon was careful to explain the ramifications
of not having the tumour removed immediately.
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage carefully before attempting the questions. Each question has four options, select the
most appropriate answer, based on what is contained or implied in the passage.
Alcohol education is the planned provision of information and skills relevant to living in a world where alcohol is commonly
misused. The World Health Organisations (WHO) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health, highlights the fact that
alcohol will be a larger problem in later years, with estimates suggesting it will be the leading cause of disability and death.
Informing people on alcohol and harmful drinking should become a priority.
History in the United States
Teaching about alcohol consumption has been a controversial topic for schools in the United States due to the differing view-
points of Americans on the subject. A variety of educational methods that reflect these viewpoints have been developed and
tried over the last century, but have yielded little behavioural change. These methods have included.
• an abstinence model --- simply "don't do it"
• a social-economic model --- which employs statistics demonstrating the likely effects of irresponsible drinking
• an alcoholism approach --- which treats consumption of alcohol as a disease.
• an alternative approach --- which seeks to offer alternatives to drinking
Kindergarten to 12th grade
Alcohol education standards in K--12 public schools vary from state to state. In rare cases, some states such as Alaska do not
require a statewide alcohol education program in their public schools. In other states, such as Delaware, the requirements are
much more stringent. Delaware's students must complete 10 hours of drug and alcohol training per year in grades K-4 and 15
hours in grades 5--12.
Many studies such as Project SAFE have shown that targeting people as young as 6--8 is crucial in order to prevent them from
abusing alcohol later on in life. People who begin drinking before the age of 15 are five times more likely to abuse alcohol
later on in life. SAMSHA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) claims that "approximately 10 per-
cent of 12-year-olds say they have used alcohol at least once. By age 13 that number doubles."
In past alcohol education programs in American schools, scare tactics were used in an attempt to persuade adolescents not
to drink. According to a non-profit organization known as Prevention First, the use of scare tactics in alcohol awareness pro-
grams can actually be counterproductive. This is due to the fact that students learn better from someone who is honest and
does not present them with fallacies.
Once programs that used scare tactics were disproved, evidence-based programs became the new norm. Evidence-based pro-
grams are programs that are backed by studies proving their effectiveness. One evidence-based alcohol prevention program
that has proven very effective in reducing alcohol use is the LST (Life Skills Training Program). The LST program is designed
for students grade 3-10. If administered every year, it would consist of 64 classroom sessions focused specifically on substance
abuse. The officials with the LST claim that there has been up to a 60 percent reduction in alcohol use among students who
completed the program. Although it may seem hard to believe that one program could cause such a significant reduction in al-
cohol use, the LST program's effectiveness has been proven by many studies published in scholarly journals such as The Journal
of Behavioral Medicine, The Journal of Studies on Alcohol, and The Journal of the American Medical Association.
Article Alcohol Education: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Source: "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alcohol_education&oldid=671005178" Categories:
• Alcohol abuse
• Public health education
21. The intent to promote alcohol education was born
D. Sense of obligation
22. The fear that alcohol will become a more significant
problem in time reflects?
A. The view held by the World Health Organisation
B. A concern of the World Health Organisation
which is documented
C. It stems from the writer apprehension brought
about by his exposure to information related to
D. A fact contained in the World Health Organisa-
23. In the context of the article (paragraph 2), to what
does "behavioural change" refer?
A. The response to the various methods of alcohol
education is encouraging.
B. There has been minimal success in relation to al-
C. Implementing various strategies to address alco-
hol misuse can benefit the widest cross- section
D. Abusers of alcohol are willing to change, but
struggle with their behaviours.
24. What was the impetus for employing a mix of strate-
gies to deal with alcoholism?
A. To target as many members of the public.
B. Different methods were use in an effort to pin-
point the most successful.
C. The differing viewpoints held by citizens made it
impossible to implement one method of treat-
D. The government felt that a multi-faceted ap-
proach would be most advantageous in eliminat-
25. In an effort to demonstrate the likely effects of irre-
sponsible drinking, the government used a "socio-
economic" model. "Socio-economic" refers to
A. Societal norms
B. Economic conditions
C. Behavioural traits
D. Social and economic factors
26. The word "stringent" means NEARLY the same as
27. What did the outcomes of Project SAFE reveal?
A. Kids age 6 - 8 need to be educated about the ef-
fects of alcohol as a means of prevention.
B. Kids ages 5 - 12 are most vulnerable and likely to
C. Kids 6 - 12 are most at risk of experimenting with
alcohol during their teenage years.
D. Kids between the ages of 12 - 15 have consumed
alcohol at least once.
28. Why do you suppose the schools chose to use "scare
tactics" (paragraph 5)?
A. They felt it would distract the children from the
pain associated with alcoholism.
B. They saw it as the most appropriate vehicle for
reaching the children.
C. They hope to shock the children into action with
the expectation they would abstain from drink-
D. They believed it would help the children to visu-
alise the impact of alcohol abuse.
Continued on the next page
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