Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : October 26th 2015 Contents Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Monday, October 26, 2015
21. The Tower of Pisa dates back to which historic
A. 11th Century
B. 12th Century
C. 14th Century
D. 20th Century
22. What is believed to have caused the Tower to
A. A fault in the earth's foundation
B. The movement of the bells in the tower
C. A flaw in the architectural structure
D. A shifting of the earth's foundation
23. Initially, what action was taken to remedy the
A. Cement grout and braces were used to rein-
force the structure.
B. Giovanni di Simone made the new stories
slightly taller on the short side to compen-
sate for the lean.
C. Construction was halted for many years pro-
viding an opportunity for the foundation to
D. No action was taken, it was hoped that the
foundation would correct itself.
24. How much time had elapsed between the start of
construction on the Tower and its completion?
A. Approximately 1 century
B. Approximately 2 centuries
C. Approximately 6 centuries
D. Approximately 7 centuries
25. What prompted the decision to silence the large
A. The earth beneath the structure was volatile.
B. The structure showed signs of wear when the
bells were operational.
C. In an effort to determine the most effective
approach to securing the tower, a combination
of methods was used.
D. The large bells were found to be detrimental
to the structure.
26. The action taken by the engineers to silence the
bells can BEST be describes as
27. Which of the intervention strategies employed by
the engineers proved to be MOST successful?
A. The siphoning of the earth from underneath
B. The use of cement and braces to strengthen
C. Increasing the height of the stories to compen-
sate for the leaning
D. Silencing of the bells in the tower
28. The word "siphoned" means the SAME as
29. Which of the following features of the Tower of
Pisa is the MOST redeeming?
A. Its inclination which resulted from settling
B. The white marble of which it was constructed
C. Its historic value and association with the
D. Its architectural design
DIRECTION: Read the poem carefully before attempt-
ing the questions. Each question has four options, se-
lect the most appropriate answer based on what is
implied or stated in the poem.
Continued on the next page
30. How does the speaker know "there is another
A. She is making an assumption.
B. She says this to encourage Austin.
C. She has experienced the place to which she
D. She is guided by the experiences of others.
31. "There," in (line 4) refers to what place?
A. The speaker'slocation
B. Austin's location
C. A heavenly place
D. The garden
32. How does the speaker define her locality?
A. As serene and fair
B. As silent fields
C. As unfading flowers
D. As bright
33. Where has Austin found himself?
A. In the suburbs
B. In a little forest
C. In an unknown place
D. In faded forests
34. What is the speaker's motive for reaching out to
A. She is intent on satisfying her own agenda.
B. She is boastful.
C. She desires to help him.
D. She tries to steer him in a particular direction.
35. The feelings exemplified by the speaker towards
the subject are
36. What is Austin's relation to the speaker?
A. He is a friend
B. He is her brother
D. He is a broken man
THERE IS ANOTHER SKY
There is another sky,
Ever serene and fair,
And there is another sunshine,
Though it be darkness there;
Never mind faded forests, Austin,
Never mind silent fields -
Here is a little forest,
Whose leaf is ever green;
Here is a brighter garden,
Where not a frost has been;
In its unfading flowers
I hear the bright bee hum:
Prithee, my brother,
Into my garden come!
by Emily Dickinson
to straighten the tower, and its lean was ultimately re-
duced to less than 4.0 degrees.
The bell tower, begun in 1173 as the third and final struc-
ture of the city's cathedral complex, it was designed to
stand 185 feet (56 meters) high and was constructed of
white marble. Three of its eight stories had been com-
pleted when the uneven settling of the building's founda-
tions in the soft ground became noticeable. At that time,
war broke out between the Italian city-states, and con-
struction was halted for almost a century. This pause al-
lowed the tower's foundation to settle and likely prevented
its early collapse.
Giovanni di Simone, the engineer in charge when construc-
tion resumed, sought to compensate for the lean by mak-
ing the new stories slightly taller on the short side, but the
extra masonry caused the structure to sink still further.
The project was plagued with interruptions, as engineers
sought solutions to the leaning problem, but the tower
was ultimately topped out in the 14th century. Twin spiral
staircases lined the tower's interior, with 294 steps leading
from the ground to the bell chamber (one staircase incor-
porates two additional steps to compensate for the
tower's lean). Over the next four centuries the tower's
seven bells were installed; the largest weighed more than
3,600 kg (nearly 8,000 pounds). By the early 20th century,
however, the heavier bells were silenced, as it was believed
that their movement could potentially worsen the tower's
The foundations have been strengthened by the injection
of cement grout and various types of bracing and rein-
forcement, but in the late 20th century the structure was
still subsiding, at the rate of 0.05 inch (1.2 mm) per year,
and was in danger of collapse. In 1990 the tower was
closed and all the bells silenced as engineers undertook a
major straightening project. Earth was siphoned from un-
derneath the foundations, decreasing the lean by 17 inches
(44 cm) to 13.5 feet (4.1 meters); the work was completed
in May 2001, and the structure was reopened to visitors.
The tower continued to straighten without further exca-
vation, until in May 2008 sensors showed that the motion
had finally stopped, at a total improvement of 19 inches
(48 cm). Engineers expected the tower to remain stable
for at least 200 years.
Leaning Tower of Pisa | tower, Pisa, Italy | Britannica.com
Written by: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
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