Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : December 17th 2015 Contents A42
body & soul
Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Thursday, December 17, 2015
The National Carnival Commission of Trinidad and Tobago (NCC) invites
applications from persons interested in operating vending booths at the
Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain during the Carnival 2016 celebra-
1. Interested persons are asked to collect application forms from the
NCC's offices at the Queen's Park Savannah, Port of Spain, from
Monday December 14, 2015, between 8.00am to 4.00pm daily.
2. Successful applicants will be required to pay the stipulated concession
fees - in cash, prior to occupation of the assigned booth.
3. Successful applicants must produce valid food badges, issued by
the local Health Authority for the year 2016, to the NCC prior to occupation
of the assigned booth.
4. Completed application forms must be returned to the NCC, at
Queen's Park Savannah Port of Spain, not later than 3:00p.m. on
Monday 21st December 2015.
5. The Board reserves the right to refuse any application.
The National Carnival Commission of Trinidad & Tobago
Visit us on www.ncctt.org
or email us at info@ncctt .org
YOUR DAILY HEALTH
News and advice
Working out could help us fight off colds and
other infections, according to a timely new study.
The study, which found that regular exercise
strengthens the body s immune system in part by
repeatedly stressing it, was conducted in animals.
But the results most likely apply to people, the
researchers say. In broad terms, our immune system
reacts to invading microbes through a variety of cells.
Some of these cells don t directly combat the infection,
but instead promote the development of inflammation.
When we think of inflammation, we usually think
of fever, swelling and redness but it can also be a
good thing, helping the body to heal itself.
The problem is that inflammation can get out of
hand. If the inflammatory response to an infection
or injury is too robust or indiscriminate, it can ulti-
mately cause more tissue damage and lingering prob-
Scientists have long tried to determine why inflam-
mation sometimes grows rampant. One thing they ve
noticed is that fat cells are particularly adept at pro-
ducing substances that promote inflammation, in
part as a response to messages from the immune
But fat cells also often produce inflammatory sub-
stances in greater
amounts than needed to
fight germs, in some cases
even when there is no
actual infection. As a
result, past studies have
found, obesity in animals
and people can lead to
elevated levels of inflam-
mation throughout the
body and, interestingly, a
weaker overall immune response to an infection or
Scientists at Chosun University in Gwangju, South
Korea, and other institutions recently began to con-
sider whether exercise might affect the body s response
to germs. Among the many effects of physical activity,
exercise generally reduces the amount of fat in the
body and also alters levels of inflammation.
For the new study, published last month in Scientific
Reports, they gathered 28 average-weight male lab-
oratory mice and tested their blood and fat cells for
markers of inflammation and other immune cells.
They then had half of the mice begin a swimming
regimen, during which the animals paddled around
a warmish pool for 30 minutes, five days a week, for
Mice aren t natural or eager swimmers and tend
to thrash in the water, so the exercise was moderately
strenuous for them, the equivalent of what 30 minutes
or so of jogging might be for us. The other mice
Throughout the three weeks, the scientists mon-
itored all of the animals levels of inflammation and
what was happening to their fat cells. The swimmers
showed increases in markers of inflammation, espe-
cially in their muscles, as their bodies worked to heal
the slight tissue damage that occurs during regular
exercise. Over all, they displayed higher levels of
inflammation than the unexercised animals. Mean-
while, their fat cells were shrinking.
To test the animals immune response, half of the
swimmers and half of the inactive mice were inoc-
ulated with Staphylococcus germs. In both mice and
people, these germs cause skin infections and serious
lung problems that resemble pneumonia.
Both the mice that had exercised and those that
had remained sedentary began to grow ill from the
Staph infections. The differences in the animals
immune responses proved to be considerable, the
How exercise may help fight off colds
Inflammation rapidly blossomed in the
sedentary, infected animals, as their immune
systems pumped out high numbers of cells
that promote inflammation. Many of these
cells migrated to the animals lungs, sug-
gesting that excessive inflammation was
taking hold there.
The infected swimmers had much lower
levels of these pro-inflammatory cells, lower
even than in the uninfected swimmers. The
numbers of these cells in their lungs were
The sickening swimmers were producing
far more of a potent type of antimicrobial
immune cell that, like internal Purell, directly
kills germs, especially in their lungs.
Over all, the infected swimmers did not
become as sick as the infected sedentary
Yoonkyung Park, a professor of biomedical
science at Chosun University who oversaw
the new study, said the exercise seemed to
have had two effects. Most obviously, it
reduced fatness, which lessened the often-
excessive levels of pro-inflammatory sub-
stances produced by fat cells.
The swimmers appeared to have devel-
oped a more-refined and effective immune
response. Their immune systems appear to
have learned to produce a beneficial amount
of inflammation, but not too much.
Of course, as we all know, rodents are
not people. But Dr Park believes that the
effects are likely to be similar in people.
"We strongly believe that long-term, reg-
ular exercise can considerably improve the
immune defense mechanism," he said,
including, thankfully, "against viral infections
such as colds and the flu." (NYT)
The sick swimmers
were producing far
more of a potent
immune cell that,
in their lungs.
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