Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : December 21st 2015 Contents A28
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Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Monday, December 21, 2015
THE BOARD OF INLAND REVENUE
WISHES TO ADVISE THE PUBLIC THAT
ALL ITS OFFICES WILL BE CLOSED AT:-
THURSDAY DECEMBER 24, 2015
THURSDAY DECEMBER 31, 2015
THIS INCLUDES THE OFFICES AT --
• TRINIDAD HOUSE ST. VINCENT STREET -- PORT OF SPAIN;
• VICTORIA COURTS - QUEEN STREET, PORT OF SPAIN;
• SOUTH REGIONAL OFFICE -- CIPERO STREET, S/F'DO;
• EAST REGIONAL OFFICE -- 6 PRINCE STREET, ARIMA;
• TOBAGO REGIONAL OFFICE -- VICTOR E BRUCE, FINANCIAL
COMPLEX, 14-16 WILSON ROAD, SCARBOROUGH, TOBAGO;
• ALL DISTRICT REVENUE OFFICES IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO.
NB: The Cashiers' Units at these offices will close at 11:00 A.M.
PAY YOUR TAX EARLY AND AVOID INTEREST
ANY INCONVENIENCE CAUSED IS REGRETTED
TAXPAYER RELATIONS SECTION
"Changing the way we interact with People!"
Active and passive smoking are linked to infer-
tility problems and a hastening of the natural
menopause before the age of 50, finds a large study
published online in the journal Tobacco Control.
The highest levels of tobacco exposure were asso-
ciated with the arrival of menopause one to two
years earlier in active and passive smokers than
among lifetime non-smokers who had not been
exposed to passive smoking, the findings show.
The researchers base their findings on information
obtained on lifetime smoking habits, fertility prob-
lems, and age at natural menopause provided by
more than 93,000 women taking part in the
Women s Health Initiative Observational Study
All the women had gone through the menopause,
and were aged between 50 and 79 when they were
recruited to the study between 1993 and 1998, at
40 different centres across the USA.
Full data on tobacco exposure and fertility, includ-
ing that of the partner, were available for 88,732
women. And 79,690 of the total sample of 93,676
had had a natural menopause, defined as not having
had surgery to remove their ovaries and an absence
of periods for 12 consecutive months.
Current and former smokers were asked how
many cigarettes they had smoked daily, the age
they had started smoking (below 15 to over 30),
and how many years they had smoked.
Never smokers were asked if, and for how long,
they had lived with a smoker as a child, as an adult,
and if they had ever had a job where colleagues
smoked in the workplace.
Some 15.4 per cent of the women for whom fer-
tility data were available (13, 621 of 88,732), reported
problems trying to conceive, defined as a period
of 12 months or more. And almost half (45 per cent;
35,834) the women included in the analysis looking
at natural menopause said they had gone through
their menopause before the age of 50.
Analysis of the data showed that tobacco exposure
was associated with an increased risk of infertility
and earlier menopause.
Compared with never smokers, current or former
smoking was associated with a 14 per cent greater
risk of infertility and a 26 per cent heightened risk
of menopause before the age of 50.
The average age at the start of the menopause
was significantly earlier among smokers than it was
among never smokers who hadn t been exposed to
second hand smoke.
For the highest levels of tobacco use the
menopause arrived almost 22 months earlier for
those who said they had started smoking before
their 15th birthday and 18 months earlier among
those who smoked at least 25 cigarettes a day.
Among women who had never actively smoked,
those who had been exposed to second hand smoke
at the highest level of exposure---ten or more years
of living with a smoker as a child, 20 or more years
of living with a partner who smoked at home, and
ten or more years of working with colleagues who
smoked---were 18 per cent more likely to have had
infertility problems than women who had never
been exposed to passive smoking.
The highest level of passive smoke exposure was
associated with the arrival of menopause 13 months
earlier than the lowest (zero) level.
The findings held true after taking account of
several influential factors, including body mass
index (BMI) at the age of 18, educational attainment,
alcohol consumption, exercise levels, insecticide
exposure, oral contraceptive use, and age at first
The clinical significance of earlier menopause is
not clear, say the researchers, but other studies
Active, passive smoking linked
to infertility, earlier menopause
have linked earlier menopause to a heightened risk
of death from any cause.
This is an observational study so no firm con-
clusions can be drawn about cause and effect, but
their findings back those of other smaller studies,
And there are plausible biological explanations
for the results, they explain. The toxins found in
tobacco smoke are known to have various deleterious
effects on many aspects of reproduction and to
disrupt hormone production and activity. (BMJ)
YOUR DAILY HEALTH
News and Advice
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