Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : December 21st 2015 Contents Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Monday, December 21, 2015
21. What distinguishes the Juvenile Pterois from
A. Its dorsal fins
B. Its colour
C. Its eye socket
D. Its tentacle
22. How do these fish protect themselves from pred-
A. By poisoning their predators
B. By hiding themselves from their prey
C. By crushing their predators
D. By using their spines as a means of defense
23. The word "conspicuous" is associated with which
group of words?
A. Obvious, striking, prominent
B. Useful, advantageous, helpful
C. Subtle, unobtrusive, modest
D. Typical, standard, classic
24. Lionfish are most vulnerable to which group of
A. Bluespotted Cornetfish, Scamp Grouper and
B. Firefish and Betterfly-cod
C. Tiger Grouper, Moray Eels and Bluespotted
D. Leeches and Isopodes
25. The writer's reference to "ornate beauty" speaks
26. What makes the elderly and children more prone
to the venom of lionfish?
A. The venom affects both groups more significantly that
B. They are believed to have a weaker immune system.
C. They are less resilient to the toxins of the lionfish.
D. They are more susceptible to paralysis.
27. Pterois are native to waters in the
A. West Atlantic
C. East Coast
28. What qualifies the writer to refer to the lionfish as a signifi-
cant invasive species?
A. Their ability to pioneer waters in the Atlantic.
B. Their aggressive and territorial nature
C. They have the highest invasion rate
D. Their swift ability to repopulate
29. Lionfish favour what type of environment?
A. Murky conditions
B. Clear conditions
C. Warm conditions
D. Frigid conditions
30. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. Lionfish multiply at a rapid rate making it difficult to con-
trol their population.
B. Lionfish are extremely resilient
C. Lionfish have a territorial nature which forces other
species of marine life to seek shelter in less than ideal en-
D. The consumption habits of lionfish have caused other
species of marine life to dwindle.
31. How would you describe the tone of the article?
DIRECTIONS: Read the poem carefully before attempting the
questions. Each question has four options, select the most ap-
propriate answer based on what is implied or stated in the
The name of the author is the first to go
followed obediently by the title, the plot,
the heartbreaking conclusion, the entire novel
which suddenly becomes one you have never read,
never even heard of,
as if, one by one, the memories you used to harbor
decided to retire to the southern hemisphere of the brain,
to a little fishing village where there are no phones.
Long ago you kissed the names of the nine Muses (ponder) goodbye
and watched the quadratic equation pack its bag,
and even now as you memorize the order of the planets,
something else is slipping away, a state flower perhaps, 12
PREDATORS AND PARASITES
Aside from instances of larger lionfish individuals engaging in cannibalism on smaller individuals, adult lionfish have
few identified natural predators, likely from the effectiveness of their venomous spines. Moray eels (family Mu-
raenidae), bluespotted cornetfish (Fistularia commersonii), and large groupers, like the tiger grouper (Mycterop-
erca tigris) and Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), have been observed preying on lionfish. It remains unknown,
however, how commonly these predators prey on lionfish. Sharks are also believed to be capable of preying on lionfish
with no ill effects from their spines. Park officials of the Roatan Marine Park in Honduras have attempted to train
sharks to feed on lionfish as of 2011 in an attempt to control the invasive populations in the Caribbean. Predators of
larvae and juvenile lionfish remain unknown, but may prove to be the primary limiting factor of lionfish populations
in their native range.
Parasites of lionfish have rarely been observed and are assumed to be infrequent. They include isopods and leeches.
INTERACTION WITH HUMANS
Lionfish are known for their venomous fin rays, an uncommon feature among marine fish in the East Coast coral
reefs. The potency of their venom makes them excellent predators and venomous to fishermen and divers. Pterois
venom produced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects when tested in both frog and clam hearts and has a
depressing effect on rabbit blood pressure. These results are thought to be due to nitric oxide release. In humans,
Pterois venom can cause systemic effects such as extreme pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, breathing difficulties, con-
vulsions, dizziness, redness on the affected area, headache, numbness, paresthesia (pins and needles), heartburn,
diarrhea, and sweating. Rarely, such stings can cause temporary paralysis of the limbs, heart failure, and even death.
Fatalities are common in very young children, the elderly, those with a weak immune system, or those who are
allergic to their venom. Their venom is rarely fatal to healthy adults, but some species have enough venom to produce
extreme discomfort for a period of several days. However, Pterois venom is a danger to allergic victims as they may
experience anaphylaxis, a serious and often life-threatening condition that requires immediate emergency medical
treatment. Severe allergic reactions to Pterois venom include chest pain, severe breathing difficulties, a drop in blood
pressure, swelling of the tongue, sweating, runny nose, or slurred speech. Such reactions can be fatal if not treated.
There is a possibility for a human to be stung without any venom injected. If venom is injected, the sting will hurt
more than just briefly. Lionfish are not aggressive towards swimmers. Most accidents happen to fishermen, who
happen to catch them.
The lionfish is a predator native to the Indo-Pacific. It aggressively preys on small fish and invertebrates. They can
be found around the seaward edge of reefs and coral, in lagoons, and on rocky surfaces to 50 m deep. They show a
preference for turbid inshore areas and in harbors, and have a generally hostile attitude and are territorial towards
other reef fish. Many universities in the Indo-Pacific have documented reports of Pterois aggression towards divers
INVASIVE, INTRODUCTION AND RANGE
Two of the twelve species of Pterois, the red lionfish (Pterosi volitans) and the common lionfish (Pterois. miles),
have established themselves as significant invasive species off the East Coast of the United States and in the
Caribbean. About 93% of the invasive population in the Western Atlantic is Pterois volitans. They have been described
as "one of the most aggressively invasive species on the planet".
Lionfish have successfully pioneered the coastal waters of the Atlantic in less than a decade and pose a major threat
to reef ecological systems in these areas. A study comparing their abundance from Florida to North Carolina with
several species of groupers found they were second only to the native scamp grouper and equally abundant to the
graysby, gag, and rock hind. This could be due to a surplus of resource availability resulting from the overfishing of
lionfish predators like grouper.] Although the lionfish has not expanded to a population size currently causing major
ecological problems, their invasion in the United States coastal waters could lead to serious problems in the future.
One likely ecological impact caused by Pterois could be their impact on prey population numbers by directly affecting
food web relationships. This could ultimately lead to reef deterioration and could negatively influence Atlantic trophic
cascade. Lionfish have already been shown to overpopulate reef areas and display aggressive tendencies, forcing
native species to move to waters where conditions might be less than desirable.
Pterois - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia • Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterois
Continued on the next page
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