Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : November 21st 2016 Contents B2 CSEC english
guardian.co.tt Monday, November 21, 2016
continued on the next page
to distort the original meaning.
16. Father has given us the assurance that he will be
home in time for dinner.
Substitute: has given the assurance with: did not indicate
A. Weather he will
B. Whether he will
C. Weather he would
D. Whether he be
17. The court will render its judgement in the matter,
Begin the sentence with: The judgement
A. Will render
B. Would render
C. Will be rendered
D. Was rendered
18. While their method of cooking is similar, the spices
used in preparing the dish are different.
Replace: in preparing with: in the preparation
A. Of the dish
B. Off the dish
C. For the dish
D. The dish
19. Her attire does not seem appropriate for work.
Begin the sentence with: She should be
A. Appropriate for work
B. Attired for work
C. Appropriately attired for work
D. Attired appropriate for work
20. On our visit to the countryside, we consumed dozens
Begin the sentence with: Dozens of mangoes
A. We consume
B. We did consume
C. Was consumed
D. Were consumed
DIRECTIONS. Read the passage carefully
before attempting the questions. Each question
has four options, select the most appropriate
answer, based on what is contained or implied
in the passage.
Consequences of Sleep
Deprivation for Teenagers
My heart was heavy, for its trust had been
Abused, its kindness answered with foul wrong;
So, turning gloomily from my fellow-men,
One summer Sabbath day I strolled among
The green mounds of the village burial-place;
Where, pondering how all human love and hate
Find one sad level; and how, soon or late,
Wronged and wrongdoer, each with meekened face,
And cold hands folded over a still heart,
Pass the green threshold of our common grave,
Whither all footsteps tend, whence none depart,
Awed for myself, and pitying my race,
DIRECTIONS. Read the poem carefully before
attempting the questions. Each question has four
options, select the most appropriate answer based
on what is contained or implied in the poem.
21. The pervading mood of the poem is one of
22. Identify the device used by the speaker in (lines 1 and
B. A Simile
D. A Metaphor
23. "So, turning gloomily from my fellow-men," suggests
A. The speaker became disenchanted and with-
B. The speaker experienced selfishness.
C. The speaker terminated his friendship.
D. The speaker was abused.
24. "One summer Sabbath day I strolled among the
green mounds," exemplifies the use of
B. A Simile
25. What does the speaker's posture indicate (lines 5 to
26. The speaker's Sabbath walk caused him to confront?
27. Which line BEST reflects the setting of the poem?
A. Line 1
D Line 11
28. The manner in which the poem is written can be de-
29. "Whither all footsteps tend, whence none depart,"
A. All life must come to an end.
B. Our footsteps will eventually lead us to death.
C. We cannot escape death.
D. This life we cannot escape.
30. Lines (12 to 14), the speaker's perception of his
circumstances changes when
A. He begins his journey.
B. He admits to his own faults.
C. He makes the decision to forgive.
D. He ponders on the certainty of death.
31. What did the speaker glean from his journey?
A. Death is inevitable.
B. Love and hate is common to all.
C. All men are equal in death.
Our common sorrow, like a mighty wave,
Swept all my pride away, and trembling I forgave!
By John Greenleaf Whittier
Many teenagers miss out on a full night's sleep during
the school week which impacts on school performance, at-
tention, memory, and has been identified as a cause of
weight gain in children.
The study led by Professor Olds (University of South
Australia) of more than 4000 children 9-18 is the first
large-scale study of sleeping habits of Australian children.
The findings were that underweight teenagers had the
most sleep, while overweight teenagers had the least
Overweight teenagers had an average of 20 minutes
less sleep than underweight teenagers during the week
and that could extend to an hour less on the weekend.
Olds said, "It seems very likely that it's the low sleep dura-
tion that's contributing to obesity, probably through vari-
ous hormonal mechanisms that we know are associated
with sleep deprivation." (1)
The National Sleep Foundation says that teenagers
should be getting around 9-9.5 hours of sleep but many
don't, although there is a valid reasons why.
Teenagers undergo changes in their biology with mood
changes, growth spurts and changes to their sleep pat-
terns. They may sleep all day or find it hard to get up in the
morning. When adolescence kicks in the natural circadian
rhythm is altered with the consequence that it can be diffi-
cult to get to sleep. Researchers say this could be because
melatonin (which helps sleep) is released later.
The other change is that they need to sleep more, up to
ten hours. The amount of hours they sleep decreases from
around the age of 5 when they get around 11 hours. How-
ever with the onset of puberty and adolescence sleeping
time increases. Once adolescence is over, the sleep pattern
changes again to adult sleeping times i.e. waking earlier
and sleeping less. Overall it is a difficult time for teenagers
as they need to sleep more, but typically find it difficult to
get to sleep at the usual time.
This means they are sleep deprived as they still have to
get up at early hours to go to school or sport. Sleep depri-
vation is linked to a number of side effects. As well as
those discussed above, it is linked to anxiety disorders,
smoking, symptoms of depression, and rebellious behav-
Twenty percent of road deaths are said to be caused by
micro-sleeps which are caused by sleep deprivation.
Around half of these types of deaths are of 16-25 year
olds. Other studies have found that lack of sleep was
linked to higher blood pressure.
During sleep we have Rapid Eye Movements (REM) in-
dicating that we are dreaming and REM starts to occur
70-100 minutes after falling asleep. One study found that
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