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TTSPCA - TOBAGO
Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
"We speak for those who cannot speak for themselves"
FRIENDSFIELD ROAD, BACOLET
(Near Dwight Yorke Stadium)
Telephone: 639-2567 Email: support@TTSPCA.com
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Correct Protocol for Deworming
Small Ruminants: Sheep and Goat
DANIELLE JOHN-JACK DVM
Whether or not you own one an-
imal or a farm, a good deworming
regime and understanding its im-
portance is necessary.
Worms fall under the broad cat-
egory of endoparasites or internal
creatures which harm an animal. In
this instance, the focus is on gastroin-
testinal nematode parasites. The most
prevalent and well-known parasite of
sheep and goats lives in the abomasum
or 4th stomach compartment and is
called Haemonchus contortus (bar-
ber-pole worm) and feeds on blood.
Other very common and equally im-
portant parasites commonly found
are Cooperia species, Nematodirus
species, Whipworms, Nodular worms,
The effects of parasites include:
• reduced milk production
• reduce breeding efficiency (fewer
• reduce weight gains
• reduce feed efficiency (the ability to
convert food to live weight)
• decreased ability to fight off oth-
er diseases (a weakened immune
Thus increasing production cost.
When to deworm?
Strategic deworming is the best
technique. This method identifies
the animals most susceptible to the
worms and treats them before they
are "clinically" ill while reducing the
chance of resistance by the worms to
I introduce you to the veterinarian's
cheat sheet, the FAMACHA Chart. As
stated before the Haemonchus worm
feeds on blood, thus the chart looks at
the mucous membranes. The rationale
is more worms = more blood loss =
paler mucous membranes. All animals
should be checked every 3-4 weeks.
Using the FAMACHA card:
• Proper FAMACHA scoring technique
includes exposing the lower eye mu-
• Match the colour of the pinkest por-
tion of the mucous membranes to the
FAMACHA card. (Figure 1).
• There are no half numbers!
Animals in FAMACHA
category 4 & 5:
• Always deworm sheep & goats in
categories 4 & 5.
Animals in FAMACHA
category 1 & 2:
• Don’t deworm 1’s & 2’s unless there
is other evidence of parasitic dis-
eases such as the presence of diar-
rhoea, poor body condition or dull
Animals in FAMACHA category 3:
Consider deworming if:
• >10% of flock/herd scores a 4 or 5
• Lambs and kids (usually recom-
• Pregnant or lactating ewes/does
(usually recommended once the
medicine is safe for use)
• Animals are in poor body condition
What to use?
To prevent resistance (the dewormer
no longer causing a killing effect to the
worms) we recommend that correct
dosages be followed based on labels
and that the farmer changes the Cat-
egory of dewormer at least annually.
The Categories and some of the com-
mon store name products include:
• Fenbendazole- Hunter 10, Safe-
• Albendazole – Alban (do not use in
• Nicotinic agonists
• Pyrantel Pamoate
• Macrolytic lactones
For any farmers seeking further
advice, contact an extension officer
or veterinary officer at the Veterinary
Diagnostic Laboratory on Belmont
Road, Hope, Tobago (660-2008).
Further resources can also be made
available through veterinary staff at
the TTSPCA Tobago (639-2567).
My twin and I have done
everything together from concep-
tion. Even as teenagers we choose
to dress alike and hang out togeth-
er all the time. We both applied
to university to pursue degrees
in Law but I received my letter
of acceptance about two weeks
ago and she has not.
The thought of going off to
school without her fills me with
dread and I really don't think
that I could do it. Apart from the
separation issue is the fact that I
can't be fully happy about taking
this step without knowing what is
going to happen with her. I have
not told her anything but time is
running out and I need to reply to
the university to let them know
whether or not I accept the offer.
Should I tell her about my let-
ter now or should I wait to see if
she gets one? Maybe I can even
defer until next year so that we
can hopefully go together.
I made mummy promise not to
comfortable the entire situation
is making her. We are a very close
family but this threatens to tear us
apart. What should I do?
It is natural to feel guilty in a
situation like this but even though
you are one side of a twin you can-
not lose sight of the fact that you
are also an individual; It is healthy
and necessary to live a life of your
own. I know that the bond shared
by twins is unique but you might
also be selling your sister short by
assuming that she cannot be fully
supportive of your dreams in spite
of her perceived setback.
Thousands of individuals ap-
ply to universities yearly and as
such your acceptance letters may
not have been mailed at the same
time. Additionally, your sister
may or may not have been ac-
cepted into the Law program but
she would be offered alternative
programs from which to choose.
However if for some reason she
was not offered a place at that
university that does not mean
that she cannot be thrilled for
you. She is human and as such, she
would feel disappointment but it
is possible to feel more than one
emotion at the same time.
You run the risk of having her
feel more distraught about the
fact that you have known for
some time and neglected to tell
her rather than the news itself.
Honesty is always the best policy.
If words fail you simply show her
the letter and let the conversation
progress from there. Offer to call
the institution to confirm whether
there is a delay and if not help her
to explore plan B.
I don't think that you should
defer acceptance. Rather look at
this unexpected turn of events as
a chance to explore your individ-
Should I hold back my
education for my twin
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