Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : August 6th 2017 Contents life B29
Sunday, August 6, 2017 guardian.co.tt
How your dog's skin protects him
The skin is the largest and one of the
most important organs in your dog.
Your dog's skin is a reflection of the
state of his health, and can also be an
indicator of the presence of internal
Skin performs many important func-
tions such as forming a barrier to protect
the body of the dog against trauma from
injury, from invasion of micro organisms
that can cause infections from parasites,
and from noxious chemicals.
Skin also maintains the body's internal
environment and regulates temperature
changes within the body. It prevents des-
iccation and dehydration but, at the same
time, secretions from skin glands make it
waterproof and lubricate the skin.
These secretions also function as pher-
omones which comprise the "scent" of the
animal, making that animal identifiable
to another animal.
The subcutaneous tissues in skin serve
as reservoirs for fat, carbohydrates, pro-
teins, electrolytes and water. Skin acts as
a sensory organ and is the receptor for the
perception of touch, pressure, vibration,
heat, cold and pain.
In addition to giving your dog his sense
of touch, skin provides follicles for hair
growth, thus making your pet cuddly and
huggable. The hair coat also serves as an
insulating layer between the dog's skin
and the external environment. It protects
him from the cold in winter, and the heat
and sun in the summer.
The hair coat has a behavioural role as
well, and can give an indication of the
emotional state of the dog, such as when
the "hackles rise" on his neck and back
when the dog is threatened or frightened.
The skin has three major layers: the
epidermis or outermost later, the der-
mis or middle layer, and the subcutis or
Hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, and
claws, are skin appendages that grow out
of the epidermis and dermis.
The epidermis is the body's environ-
, providing protection from
foreign substances. The epidermis is com-
posed of multiple types of cells, including
keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans
cells, and Merkel cells. Each of these cells
has special functions.
Keratinocytes provide a protective layer
that is constantly being renewed in a pro-
cess called keratinisation. New skin cells
are created near the base of the epidermis
and migrate upwards, producing a com-
pact layer of dead cells on the skin surface.
This layer keeps in fluids, salts, and
nutrients, while keeping out infectious
or noxious agents.
The top layer of dead skin cells are con-
tinuously shed and replaced by cells from
lower layers. The rate of cell replacement
is affected by nutrition, hormones, tis-
sue factors, immune cells in the skin, and
Melanocytes are located at the base of
the epidermis, the outer root sheath of
hairs, and the ducts of the sebaceous and
The melanocytes produce the skin and
hair colouring (pigment) called melanin.
Production of melanin is controlled by
both hormones and the genes received
Melanin helps protect the cells from
the damaging rays of the sun. Humans
can increase the production of melanin
by repeated exposure to the sun, but dogs
Langerhans cells are part of the immune
system and play an important role in the
skin's response to foreign substances.
They contribute to such things as the
development of rashes when an animal
is exposed to irritating materials.
Merkel cells are specialised cells asso-
ciated with the sensory organs in the skin.
They help to provide animals with sensory
information from whiskers and the deep
skin areas called tylotrich pads.
The dermis supports and nourishes
the epidermis and skin appendages. The
dermis contains the blood vessels that
supply the epidermis with nutrients and
regulates skin and body temperature. Sen-
sory nerves are located in the dermis and
The dermis secretes the proteins, col-
lagen and elastin, which give support
and elasticity to the skin. There are also
immune cells in the dermis that de-
fend against infectious agents that pass
through the epidermis.
The subcutis is the innermost layer of
the skin. It contains the subcutaneous
fat and muscles. The subcutaneous fat
provides insulation; a reservoir for flu-
ids, electrolytes and energy, and a shock
Proper nutrition, regular grooming and
constant monitoring are essential in en-
suring that your dog's skin is healthy. It
is important to protect your dog's skin so
that it can protect him in turn.
Copyright © Kristel-Marie Ramnath 2017
GIRLS TRIP IN 2D
(18 YRS. +) 5.30PM & 8.30PM
THE EMOJI MOVIE IN 3D
(PG ADVISED) 5.45PM
THE EMOJI MOVIE IN 2D
(PG ADVISED) 3.00 PM ONLY
THE CUTLASS IN 2D
(16 YRS. +) 3.00PM & 8.30PM
(INDIAN MOVIE) (ALL AGES PG.) 5.30PM ONLY
HOMECOMING IN 2D
(PGA) 3.00PM & 8.30PM
OPENS WEDNESDAY: DARK TOWER IN 2D
: ARMED RESPONSE
EMPIRE MULTIPLEX CINEMAS
SAN FERNANDO TEL: 221-4979
GLOBE Port of Spain
• 1200 Seats
• Church Services
EVERYDAY IS TUESDAY @
NATIONAL CINEMA !!!
HURRY LAST 3 DAYS
Today - 2 BIG SHOWS ONLY
4:30 & 8:30 p.m. 18 Yrs.
Queen Latifah, Jada Pinkett
Smith, Regina Hall
GIRLS TRIP in 2D
Tom. 4 shows - 12:00, 3:00,
6:00 & 9:00 p.m.
Wed.: DARK TOWER
PARKING AVAILABLE ON
Visit our website at:
Links Archive August 5th 2017 August 7th 2017 Navigation Previous Page Next Page