Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : May 10th 2013 Contents A65
Friday, May 10, 2013 www.guardian.co.tt Guardian
For Study Commencing September 2013
The Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago invites
ONLINE applications from citizens of Trinidad and Tobago to
pursue master's and doctorate degrees for the academic year
commencing September 2013.
To apply for this scholarship, applicants must:
a) Be citizens of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and must
not be a permanent resident of another country
b) Have graduated in 2008 or thereafter with a First Class
Honours undergraduate bachelor's degree
c) Possess a Grade Point Average of 3.60 and above
d) Have graduated from one of the under mentioned academic
Be recipients of Government scholarships and graduated in 2008
or thereafter with a First Class Honours undergraduate bachelor's
e) Be desirous of pursuing studies at the postgraduate levels
(masters and doctorate) in an area identi ed as a human
resource development need;
f ) Be desirous of pursuing studies in areas related to the
development needs of Trinidad and Tobago and must be
able to identify the development need based on the seven
(7) Interconnected Development Pillars of the country.
Applicants must provide detailed evidence that their
programme of study and research is tied to an identi ed
development need of the country; Applicants must consider
the national human resource development needs in deciding
on their area of study. This is available at www.scholarships.
g) Provide proof of acceptance or proof of being enrolled at
an accredited institution in an accredited postgraduate
programme (Master's or Doctorate)
h) Be under 50 years of age.
Applicants must ensure that two (2) recommendations are
submitted online by their Recommenders. These Recommenders
must recommend the applicant for a scholarship.
i. One must be an academic recommendation; and
ii. Recommenders must attest to the applicant's ability to
perform and to succeed as a scholarship recipient by
providing relevant and practical examples where applicable.
They must also describe what contribution and the likely
impact the applicant will have on the institution/community/
Please ensure that your Recommenders sign, scan and upload
their recommendation to your online application.
more than 500 words:
i. The impact their studies will have on their institution/
ii. How the course of study relates to the existing and future
iii. How the programme of study relates to the identi ed seven
providing detailed evidence that their programme of study
and research is tied to an identi ed development need;
iv. How exposure gained from pursuing this course of study
could contribute to the development of the nation. Please
indicate clearly where the development need has been
identi ed and outlined in the national development strategy;
v. Their ve-year plan to put into practice the knowledge and
experience acquired through the scholarship.
I. Area of study as it links to national development
II. The content/quality of the study plan/research proposal
III. Likely development impact the applicant will have on
completion of studies.
IV. Interview -- candidates will be interviewed to get a sense of
and their state of mind in relation to the undertaking of
studies locally or overseas and their ability to complete the
programme of study successfully. Applicants must also be
able to discuss their plan of study/research proposal.
Please refer to our website at www.scholarships.gov.tt for
further information on the eligibility and selection criteria and for
preparation and submission of an online application.
All applicants must ensure that their transcripts are sent directly
to the following address and these must be received before the
closing date of the scholarship.
Deadline date for applications:
June 10, 2013.
Ministry of Public Administration
(Scholarships and Advanced Training Division)
5th Floor National Library Building
Corner Hart and Abercromby Streets
Attention: Head, Selections Secretariat
Applicants who wish to hand deliver their transcripts must ensure
that this document is properly sealed by the academic institution
and submitted to the Selections Secretariat.
Training Division can be contacted at 625-6724; 623-7608 ext. 2064;
2070; 2097; 2093 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Transcripts must be received before the closing date of the
scholarship for your application to be considered.
Indeed. Make no bones about it!
Osteoporosis affects over 55 per
cent of people over 50 years, and
is more prevalent than coronary
heart disease, heart attack or dia-
betes, according to the US Surgeon
General s Report in 2004. It is even
more common than breast, uterine
and ovarian cancer combined!
Osteoporosis more than likely
affects someone you know. It is a
systemic skeletal disorder that man-
ifests itself as compromised bone
strength, and predisposes the indi-
vidual to increased fracture risk. In
this condition, the bone becomes
very fragile and can fracture with
even the slightest of stresses, such
as bending to pick up something on
the floor, getting up from sitting or
rolling in bed.
It occurs in one out of every two
women and in one out of every four
men in the USA and can be imme-
diately life altering and life threat-
ening because of the increased risk
of falls and fracture.
The most common places for frac-
tures include the vertebral bones and
the hip, followed closely by the wrist,
which is usually fractured by a fall
on an outstretched hand. After the
first vertebral fracture, the risk of
sustaining a second vertebral fracture
increases fivefold! One in five women
will get a second fracture within one
year of the first.
Osteoporosis is actually a pediatric
condition that manifests itself in
adulthood, as periods of peak bone
growth are in utero and during ado-
lescence. Therefore, prevention actu-
ally begins before birth with the
mother and continues throughout
the lifespan of the child. It is vital
to encourage children in sport and
a lifestyle of exercise. Risk factors
include heredity (60-80%), low
physical activity in youth, poor nutri-
tion, hormonal status (post-
menopausal women are at risk),
Caucasian or Indian ethnicity, certain
medications and lifestyle factors like
caffeine intake and weight-bearing
There are many postural changes
that occur in people who have the
condition. With decreased bone
strength, the individual actually loses
height because of the compression
and degeneration of the bones in
the spine. People may lose as much
as ten inches in height. The typical
posture is one of a humped back, or
kyphosis, with a forward head pos-
ture. This rounded posture can
become so severe that the internal
organs become affected due to the
spatial changes. Together with the
decreased bone strength, this abnor-
mal posture increases the stresses
on the weakened bone and can lead
to compression fractures of the spine.
However, only 20-30% of these frac-
tures are symptomatic, so many peo-
ple may be walking around with
these fractures and not even know
it!Management of the individual
with osteoporosis is multifactorial,
and involves the expertise of physi-
cians and physical therapists. Physi-
cians monitor the changes in the
bone density and prescribe appro-
priate medications to help prevent
bone loss and to increase bone pro-
duction. Physical therapists play a
vital role in helping to improve func-
tion and prevent compression frac-
tures and falls.
Alignment of the spine in the
patient with osteoporosis is key, as
good alignment helps to reduce the
stresses on the spine, decreasing the
risk of fracture and falls. Alignment
can be improved by the prescription
of specialised exercises that help to
lengthen the compressed spine, and
can also aid in pain management.
Bracing with a specialised osteo-
porosis-specific brace that supports
and protects the spine without weak-
ening it is another part of compre-
hensive management for such
Other types of exercises include
weight-bearing activities like walking
and simple, yet safe movements that
involve random impact and odd
forces. Bone responds to stresses
placed upon it, so these exercises
are important to stimulate bone
growth. Balance challenges and edu-
cation in safe and appropriate body
mechanics are also vital in reducing
the risk of falls and fractures during
activities of daily living.
Owing to the flexed posture that
is so commonly seen in patients with
osteoporosis, lung function may be
compromised and occasionally
breathing deeply can be difficult.
Diaphragmatic deep breathing exer-
cises are highly recommended to
help with alignment, rib cage expan-
sion and mobility. Aquatic therapy
can help improve breathing, balance
and strength in a safe, pain-reduced
environment. While the water pro-
vides limited weight-bearing stresses,
the pull of the muscles on the bones
during aquatic exercise provides
stresses that stimulate bone growth.
Patients who function at high levels
may also benefit from specialised
yoga and pilates. In fact, Tai Chi has
been shown to significantly improve
balance and strength in patients with
osteoporosis in some research stud-
ies. There is even Ai Chi, which is
Tai Chi in the aquatic environment!
No matter the type of exercise, it is
important to avoid bending and rota-
tion of the spine as these can cause
Osteoporosis has been described
as the world s ticking time bomb,
but there is something you can do
about it! Sticks and stones do not
have to break our bones!
When sticks and stones may break your bones...
Osteoporosis, a ticking time bomb
The most common places for
fracture include the vertebral bones
and the hip
Carla Rauseo, DPT, CSCS is a
doctor of physical therapy and
certified strength and
conditioning specialist at Total
Rehabilitation Centre Ltd in El
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