Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : June 18th 2013 Contents A23
Tuesday, June 18, 2013 www.guardian.co.tt Guardian
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
In the Estate of Frederick
Kenneth NARINE also called
Frederick Narine of 26, Eastern
Main Road, St Augustine, Trinidad
Retired Accountant, deceased
NOTICE is hereby given that creditors and
other persons having claims against, or an
interest in the Estate of the above named
deceased should give notice in writing to
Messrs. J.D. SELLIER + CO., 129/131,
Abercromby Street, Port of Spain,
Trinidad, who are Attorneys-at-Law for
CHERYL ANN NARINE also called CHERYL
NARINE and IAN KENNETH NARINE, the
Executors named in the Will of the above
named deceased and the persons to
whom a Grant of Probate was issued by
the High Court of Justice not later than the
25th day of July, 2013 after which date
the said CHERYL ANN NARINE also called
CHERYL NARINE and IAN KENNETH NARINE,
the Executors of the said deceased, intend
to distribute the Estate of the deceased
among the parties entitled thereto having
regard only to the claims of which notice
has been received by the said MESSRS.
J.D.SELLIER + CO.
Dated this 13th day of June, 2013.
PROPOSED PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SPECIFICATION (PAS)
FOR PUBLIC COMMENT
TTS 558:2001 has
been revised to
address concerns of
testing procedures to
e ectively control
This proposed draft
Speci cation (PAS) is a
revision of TTS 558:2001
which is now obsolete and
will be withdrawn when
this PAS is approved.
Motor vehicle exhaust emissions --
TTS/PAS 558:20XX speci es the
maximum permissible limits of key
pollutants that are found in exhaust
emissions from motor vehicles. It also
speci es the methods of measurement
and the test equipment to be utilised
in determining the levels of these key
pollutants to assist in determining
compliance with the requirements of
this Speci cation.
Parties that may be a ected by the proposed draft PAS can submit their concerns and justi cations in writing to the:
Head, Standardization Division, Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards,
P.O. Box 467, P.O.S.
Or via email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
PROPOSED DRAFT PUBLICLY
SCOPE OF PROPOSED DRAFT PUBLICLY REASON FOR
AVAILABLE SPECIFICATION (PAS) AVAILABLE SPECIFICATION (PAS)
In accordance with the Standards Act, No. 18 of 1997, the following proposed draft PAS is being issued for public comment.
Copies of this draft PAS will be available from the Bureau's Information Centre for consultation by interested parties.
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO BUREAU OF STANDARDS
1-2 Century Drive, Trincity Industrial Estate, Macoya, Tunapuna.
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO BUREAU OF STANDARDS
CLOSING DATE FOR COMMENTS: 20th July, 2013
NOTE: The above PAS is Voluntary
Even though I am going to
write about intestinal gas,
normally an embarrassing sub-
ject, this is a serious article about
belching and breaking wind, so
the above title is the only pun
Body gas emissions mainly
consist of five gases: nitrogen,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen
and methane. There can be a
sixth gas, sulphur, present in tiny
Although small, sulphur is
mighty and when it combines
with hydrogen to make hydrogen
sulphide, the chemical that pro-
duces the odour of rotten eggs, it
contributes disproportionately to
the smell when gas is passed.
The gas within our digestive
system comes from a variety of
sources. Most of the gas in the
stomach comes from eating or
drinking or talking too quickly, so
babies and politicians tend to
Most of the gas in a belch
consists of nitrogen and oxygen
because you normally ingest air
when you swallow your food.
Many people belch because
they also eat too much.
When you overeat, the bubble
of air that normally floats on top
of the liquid contents of the
stomach becomes pressurised
because the stomach is too full
and can only distend so much.
In order to relieve the raised
pressure, some of that air bubble
is released, under pressure, in the
form of a belch. Some societies
apparently value this, as a sign of
good eating. I have never experi-
enced this but Hollywood
As women and politicians
know, tight-fitting clothes can
also cause pressure effects on the
abdomen and cause trapping of
flatus. This might explain the
nonsense that comes out of vari-
Babies who are allowed to cry
before feeding also swallow large
amounts of air, which then has
uncomfortably remains in the
stomach and is responsible for
much of the "colic" or "wind" or
"gripe" beloved of grandmothers,
aunties and obeahwomen.
Of late, a new disease, "reflux,"
has been added to the lexicon,
and treatment with esoteric and
expensive medications is offered
by doctors who do not take the
time to explain proper comforting
and feeding practices to new and
Adults can reduce the amount
of air being swallowed by chew-
ing slowly and not bolting the
With politicians there is noth-
ing you can do but run. This
might be a good example of
Some gas is also produced in
the stomach. Saliva reacts with
hydrochloric acid in the stomach
to produce carbon dioxide.
Chewing gum can contribute to
carbon dioxide production
because of the continuous pro-
duction of saliva associated with
After the stomach comes the
small intestine and then the large
intestine or colon. Most of the
food that we eat is absorbed into
the blood stream from the small
Most of the gases in flatus are
produced by colonic bacterial
action which ferment foodstuffs
that have not been digested or
absorbed by the time they get to
the large bowel.
The main cause of this is lac-
tose intolerance. That includes
most of the world s population.
The ordinary adult lacks an
enzyme in the small intestine
that breaks down lactose, the
principal sugar of milk products.
The non-digested and conse-
quently unabsorbed lactose trav-
els on to the large intestine,
where it is subjected to the
action of certain bacteria.
Carbon dioxide is produced,
which then travels to the outside
world via the anus, much to the
discomfort of the people around.
In general anyone who suffers
from a difficulties in absorbing
foodstuffs tends to have excessive
amounts of flatus.
In addition, small amounts of
these gases produced can actually
be absorbed from the gut into
the bloodstream, exhaled when
we breathe and contribute to the
phenomenon known as halitosis
or bad breath.
Another fascinating intestinal
gas is methane. Methane is the
gas that produces the flame-
thrower effect so beloved by
schoolboys, drivers of small cars
who routinely break the red light
and Trinidadians who believe
that going to St Mary s or QRC
entitles them to happiness.
Coincidentally, methane pro-
duction from cattle is a mighty
contributor to global warming. In
T&T, despite the imminent
arrival of a couple dozen foreign
cattle to produce more unneces-
sary and unneeded milk, the
major contributor to local warm-
ing has to be Ariapita Avenue.
There are a number of foods
that produce gas when eaten.
Beans and peas are at the top of
That s because they contain
large amounts of a complex car-
bohydrate, raffinose, which passes
into the colon largely unabsorbed.
Other noted gas producers,
containing raffinose, are the veg-
etables of the cabbage family,
broccoli, Brussels sprouts and
cauliflower. You can add to that
mushrooms, asparagus, cucum-
ber, onions, turnips, melons, gar-
lic, pepper and spicy foods in
Certain cheeses, Roquefort and
Brie, apart from their lactose
content, also cause lots of gas on
their own. Some types of seafood
such as prawns, crab and salmon
may also contribute.
Finally, beware the vegetarian.
Apart from feeling morally supe-
rior to us animal killers and
eaters and having a longer lifes-
pan than us, they produce more
gas than meat eaters because of
the higher level of non-digestible
foodstuffs in their diet.
CLEARING THE AIR
DAVID E BRATT, MD
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