Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : September 4th 2013 Contents A32
body & soul
Guardian www.guardian.co.tt Wednesday, September 4, 2013
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES
CAVE HILL CAMPUS
Applications are invited from suitably qualified persons for the following posts at the University of the
West Indies, Cave Hill Campus:
1. Trade Policy Research Fellow in the Shridath Ramphal Centre for International Trade Law, Policy and
The successful applicant should possess a PhD or M Sc in international Trade law, International Economics,
International Relations or International Development. Research and teaching experience/interest in
international Trade Policy with a good publication record and knowledge of the historical, political, social and
economic background of the Caribbean is highly desirable.
The successful candidate will be expected to:
• Teach students of the M Sc Degree in International Trade Policy (MITP)
• Address contemporary Trade Policy issues relating to small states in the global system and the challenges
of international negotiations;
• Supervise research work of candidates reading for MITP and participate in the research programme of the
Centre in the field of International Trade Policy.
2. Librarian II in the Main Library
The successful applicant should possess a degree and relevant professional library qualifications. Persons with at
least three (3) years post-qualification professional experience in an academic setting will be given preference.
The successful candidate can be attached to any unit of the library but experience in User Services, Special
Collections or Digitization would be useful.
Candidates should have:
• Experience in the provision of reference services and/or information literacy training; or
• Experience in working with digital objects; or
• Experience in cataloguing in MARC records or OCLC;
• Knowledge of and competency with ExLibris' suite of products -- Aleph, SFX, Primo would be considered assets.
The successful applicant will be expected to participate in professional activities, to conduct research and
contribute to the literature of Library and Information Science.
The successful applicants will be expected to assume duties as soon as possible.
Detailed applications (two copies) giving full particulars of qualifications and experience, biodata and the names,
addresses (including email) and telephone numbers of three (3) referees (one of whom should be from your
present organization) should be sent as soon as possible to The Director, Human Resources, The
University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, Barbados. Fax (246) 417-0330; Email:
email@example.com. A Job Application Pack is available from our website:
THE CLOSING DATE FOR APPLICATIONS SEPTEMBER 25, 2013
The origins of human tuberculosis have been
traced back to hunter-gatherer groups in Africa
70,000 years ago, an international team of scientists
The research goes against common belief that TB
originated in animals only 10,000 years ago and
spread to humans.
The work, published in Nature Genetics, outlines
the strong relationship between the evolutionary his-
tory of both humans and TB.
The disease causes more than one million deaths
Previous research has indicated that human TB
originated about 10,000 years ago in Africa during
the Neolithic Demographic Transition (NDT), when
the human population was expanding and agriculture
was becoming prominent.
Researchers combined geographic and genetic data
from 259 strains of TB to reconstruct its evolutionary
history and compare it to the origins of humans in
Prof Sebastian Gagneux, from the Swiss Tropical
and Public Health Institute, said: "We found that
the most basal---the earliest---lineages of TB and
humans originated in the same place, in Africa,
60,000 years earlier than what people previously
"What we have done is provide a strong hypothesis
to reinforce the idea that TB originally started in
humans, and migrated to animals during NDT."
The question the scientists are now trying to answer
how TB managed to survive 60,000 years among
small groups of people.
A striking feature of TB, which is not common in
other diseases, is that people can be infected with
it for years before showing any symptoms. The disease
is able to reactivate itself after a certain time peri-
od.This latency is what the researchers suggest kept
TB alive during early years.
Prof Gagneux said: "If there are only a few people
to infect, it makes no sense to kill them, as you would
risk killing itself too. It s an evolutionary dead-end."
Once the human population started expanding
during the NDT, TB became more active and was
able to spread farther.
So, as the number of hosts increased during and
after the NDT, so did TB s drive for increased vir-
"The next step in this research would be to use
genetic information to understand this activation
and deactivation mechanism of TB," said Dr Inaka
Comas, lead author of the research.
TB remains a global threat, causing 1.4
million deaths in 2011, according to the
World Health Organisation. If scientists can
understand how TB and humans co-devel-
oped, it may help find a way to reduce its
Dr Ruth McNerney, a lecturer in pathogen
biology and diagnostics at the London
School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,
said the study could lead to further devel-
opments in understanding the movements
"There are now thousands of TB genomes
being sequenced in big databases so that
in the next five years we ll know more about
TB than we ever have, which is exciting.
"This is the first step in that area of
YOUR DAILY HEALTH
News and Advice
TB has human, not animal, origins
International team of scientists:
The work, published in Nature Genetics, outlines the
strong relationship between the evolutionary history
of both humans and TB.
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