Home' Trinidad and Tobago Guardian : December 15th 2013 Contents 10
July 18, 1918 --- Born to Hendry Mphakany-
iswa, a Thembu chief, and Nosekeni Qunu in
the Umtata district of the Transkei, at a time
when virtually all of Africa was under Euro-
pean colonial rule.
1940 --- Expelled from University of Fort Hare,
a leading institution for blacks, for role in a stu-
dent strike with Oliver Tambo, a future African
National Congress president. Moves to Johan-
1942 --- Joins African National Congress.
1943 --- Receives BA from Fort Hare after
completing correspondence courses through
University of South Africa.
1944 --- Helps form the ANC Youth League
with Tambo and Walter Sisulu to more aggres-
sively push for racial equality. Marries Evelyn
Mase, Sisulu's cousin.
1947 --- Mandela elected secretary of youth
1950 --- Becomes president of ANC Youth
League, elected to ANC national executive
1952 --- Leads the Defiance Campaign, encour-
aging people to break racial separation laws.
Convicted under Suppression of Communism
Act, banned from attending gatherings and
leaving Johannesburg. With Tambo, forms the
first black law partnership in the country.
1956 --- Charged with treason, along with 155
other South Africans of all races who had sup-
ported the Freedom Charter calling for a non-
racial democracy and a socialist-based
economy. They were all acquitted after a four-
1958 --- Marries social worker Winnie
Nomzamo Madikizela after divorcing Evelyn.
1961 --- Helps establish ANC guerrilla wing,
Umkhonto we Sizwe, or Spear of the Nation.
He would say later the decision to take up
arms came after a "sober assessment of the
political situation that had arisen after years of
tyranny, exploitation and oppression of my
people by whites."
January 1962 --- Leaves the country for mili-
tary training and to gather support for
July 1962 --- Returns to South Africa via
Botswana and drives to Liliesleaf Farm in Rivo-
nia. Travels to KwaZulu-Natal to report back to
ANC President Chief Albert Luthuli and other
August 5, 1962 --- Arrested near Howick.
Charged with illegally leaving the country and
incitement to strike and sentenced to five
years' hard labour.
November 7, 1962 --- Sentenced to five years
for incitement and leaving the country illegally
and assigned the prisoner number 19476/62.
May 1963 --- Sent to Robben Island.
October 1963 --- Charged with sabotage in
April 20, 1964 --- At a time when African
colonies are becoming independent, makes his
speech from the dock in which he says he is
"prepared to die" for a democratic South
June 11, 1964 --- All except two of Rivonia Tri-
alists convicted of sabotage.
June 12, 1964 --- Mandela and seven others
sentenced to life imprisonment. All except
Goldberg are sent to Robben Island to serve
their sentences. Goldberg, as the only white
person convicted in the trial, is held in Pretoria
Central Prison. Mandela is assigned the pris-
oner number 466/64.
1968 --- Mandela's mother Nosekeni dies. He is
forbidden from attending her funeral.
1969 --- Mandela's eldest son Thembekile is
killed in a car accident. Mandela is forbidden
from attending his funeral.
1982 --- Mandela, Sisulu, Mhlaba and Mlangeni
and later Kathrada are transferred to
Pollsmoor Prison. Mandela is assigned the
prisoner number 220/82.
1973 --- Refuses a government offer of release
on condition he agrees to a kind of exile in his
1985 --- Another release offer, on condition he
renounce violence. In fiery refusal, read by his
daughter Zindzi at a rally, Mandela says burden
is on the government to renounce violence, le-
galise the ANC, scrap segregation laws and
agree to political negotiations. Goldberg, who
has been held apart from his comrades for
more than 20 years, accepts the offer and is
1985 --- Undergoes surgery on his prostate
gland at the Volks Hospital in Cape Town. Vis-
ited in hospital by Justice Minister Kobie Coet-
May 1986 --- Meets with an Eminent Persons
Group from the Commonwealth Group of Na-
July 1986 --- Wrote to the Commissioner of
Prisons requesting a meeting on a matter of
national importance. He requested a meeting
with Kobie Coetsee. Met with Coetsee where
he first raised the issue of talks about talks be-
tween the National Party Government and the
ANC. Also asked to meet President PW Botha.
November 1987 --- Govan Mbeki is released
from Robben Island.
August 1988 --- Contracts tuberculosis and is
admitted to Tygerberg Hospital where he re-
mains for six weeks.
December 1988 --- Continues his recuperation
at Constantiaberg MediClinic.
December 9, 1988 --- Is transferred to Victor
Verster Prison near Paarl where he is held in
the house formerly occupied by a warder.
Mandela is assigned the prisoner number
July 1989 --- Meets PW Botha.
October 1989 --- Sisulu, Kathrada, Motsoaledi,
Mlangeni and Mhlaba are released.
December 1989 --- Meets FW de Klerk.
February 2, 1990 --- At the opening of Parlia-
ment, President FW de Klerk announces the
unbanning of all political organisations, includ-
ing the African National Congress.
February 9, 1990 --- Meets de Klerk and is in-
formed of his release the next day. He was to
be released in Johannesburg. Mandela objects,
saying he wants to walk out of the prison at
Victor Verster and asks for an extra week for
ANC people on the outside to prepare. De
Klerk refuses the extension but agrees to re-
lease him at Victor Verster.
February 10, 1990 --- De Klerk announces at a
press conference that Nelson Mandela will be
released the next day.
February 11, 1990 --- Nelson Mandela is re-
leased from Victor Verster Prison to cheering
crowds. Addresses thousands of well-wishers
gathered on the Grand Parade, from the bal-
cony of the City Hall in Cape Town. Spends the
night at Bishopscourt, the official residence of
the Archbishop of Cape Town.
February 12, 1990 --- Holds a press conference
in the garden of Bishopscourt. Flies to Johan-
February 12, 1990 --- Stays the night in North
Riding at the home of a supporter Sally
February 13, 1990 --- Flies to FNB Stadium in
Soweto for a welcome home rally. Spends his
first night in decades at his family home of
8115 Orlando West, Soweto.
1991 --- Mandela elected president of ANC. The
government, ANC and 17 other political groups
begin formal negotiations on a new constitu-
1993 --- Draft constitution adopted, opening the
way to South Africa's first all-race election in
April 1994. Mandela and President FW de Klerk
receive Nobel Peace Prize for their work in ne-
gotiating an end to apartheid.
April 1994 --- ANC wins elections.
May 10, 1994 --- Mandela inaugurated as
South Africa's first black president.
June 24, 1995 --- South Africa defeats New
Zealand in the finals of the Rugby World before
fans who include Mandela, wearing the jersey
of Francois Penaar, South Africas team captain.
1996 --- Mandela granted a divorce from Win-
1998 --- Mandela weds former Mozambican
first lady Graca Machel on his 80th birthday.
April 5, 1999 --- Two Libyan suspects handed
over to UN representative for trial in the
Netherlands in the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am
jet over Scotland after intensive diplomatic ef-
forts by Mandela.
June 16, 1999 --- Mandela retires after one
term, a rarity among African presidents, but
continues to be active in causes promoting
world peace, supporting children and fighting
October 1999 --- Now a former president and
sought-after international mediator, Mandela
tours Iran, Syria, Jordan, the Palestinian territo-
ries and Israel.
January 30, 2003 --- In speech, calls US Presi-
dent George W Bush arrogant and short-
sighted for ignoring the UN on Iraq.
2004 --- Announces retirement from public life.
Jan. 6, 2005 --- Eldest son Makgatho dies.
Mandela announces the cause is Aids-related
complications, saying the only way to fight the
disease's stigma is to speak openly.
July 18, 2007 --- Celebrates 89th birthday by
launching "council of elders" --- Nobel peace lau-
reates, politicians and development experts
dedicated to finding new ways to foster peace
and resolve global crises.
June 25, 2008 --- In speech in London, goes fur-
ther than his government in first public com-
ments about Zimbabwe's political crisis,
referring to "the tragic failure of leadership in
our neighboring Zimbabwe."
July 18, 2009 --- 91st birthday declared interna-
tional Mandela Day, which organisers hope will
become annual day devoted to service to com-
July 11, 2010 --- Mandela waves to the crowd
at Soccer City stadium in Johannesburg as
South Africa bids farewell to the 2010 soccer
World Cup. Driven in a small golf cart and
seated alongside wife, Graca Machel, the smil-
ing, warmly dressed Mandela is welcomed by a
thunderous mix of vuvuzelas and roars from
January 28, 2011 --- Mandela released from
hospital after spending two nights there for a
June 21, 2011 --- Mandela meets at his home
with Michelle Obama, her two daughters and
other Obama relatives.
February 26, 2012 --- Mandela is released from
a hospital after overnight stay for minor diag-
nostic surgery to determine the cause of an ab-
December 2012 --- Mandela spends nearly
three weeks in a hospital, where he is treated
for a lung infection and has a procedure to re-
March 9, 2013 --- Mandela spends a night in
the hospital for a medical exam.
March 28, 2013 --- Mandela admitted to a hos-
pital with a lung infection.
April 6, 2013 --- Mandela is released from the
hospital after being diagnosed with pneumonia
and having fluid drained from his lung area.
April 29, 2013 --- State television broadcasts
footage of a visit by President Jacob Zuma and
other ANC leaders to Mandela at his Johannes-
burg home. Zuma said at the time that Man-
dela was in good shape, but the footage --- the
first public images of Mandela in nearly a year
---showed him silent and unresponsive, even
when Zuma tried to hold his hand.
June 8, 2013 --- The government says Mandela
is admitted to a hospital with a recurring lung
infection. Officials describe his condition as se-
rious but stable.
December 5, 2013 --- Mandela dies at age 95.
South African President Jacob Zuma makes
the announcement at a news conference, say-
ing "we've lost our greatest son."
In this March 23, 1999 file photo, South African President Nelson Mandela, left, stands with American
pop singer Michael Jackson at a news conference in Cape Town, where Jackson announced dates for
two concerts of which profits went to various funds, including the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund.
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